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Max Weber (1922)
He distinguished 3 means by which
political power was
Charismatic authority-
rests on obedience
ruling figures, Legal-rational authority-
because of the based on a legal
Traditional authority- message they framework of principles
based on custom. convey. They are and procedures. Weber
Traditional rulers conveyed because believed that this was
such as British they endowed the source of authority
monarchs did not special qualities that that would eventually
need to justify their portray a better life become dominant.
authority. It was e.g. Jesus.
usually based on
patriarchy.…read more

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Engles- "A committee for Marx- "Class Conflict" and "Class Althusser- drew attention to
managing the affairs of the struggle" refer to the antagonism the way the operation of the
bourgeoisie" that arose between social classes state supports the capitalist
over the distribution of wealth and mode of production. He said
·Designed to further the interests
power in society. the state as narrowly
of those who own the means of
·He believed there would come a conceived, with a repressive
state apparatus- this helps to
time when the proletariat would
maintain the dominance of
seize power from the owners of
the ruling class legitimation.
production. They would assume
control of the state and secure
defeat of the capitalist class. This
would lead to a `withering of the Gramsci-Believed the media
state'. was a powerful means of
retaining class dominance,
Miliband- claimed the state because media proprietors
would always operate to the convey their message across
advantage of the ruling economic the nation into people's
class. He noted the social homes.
backgrounds of those who
occupied senior positions in Britain
all come from a privileged
background. Therefore all key
personnel had a vested interest in
ensuring the system is preserved.…read more

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Do not accept that power resides with one class. They believe power is dispersed between
competing groups e.g. cultural, economic, educational.
They portray the state as a Dahl- "A has power over B, to the extent where A can get
neutral party that represents the B to do something which they wouldn't of otherwise
interests of every group in society. done".
They see the state as an "Honest He concluded that "no one, and certainly no group of more than a
Broker" ­ which acts neutrally. few individuals, is entirely lacking in power".Accepted that in
modern representative democracies there are few opportunities
for the mass of people to become involved in decision making.
They believe that it is inevitable that politics is conducted by a small minority of individuals.
They believe the opinions and demands of some groups remain unnoticed and views of the
elite go unchallenged.
Moscas- The most primitive Pareto- distinguished the Lions and the Foxes. The lions were the
societies are ruled by the political people who were at ease with the exercise of force (Military) and
class. They believe Elites are not the Foxes in western societies use low cunning to get what they
hereditary, so people from all want (Government).
walks of life can become an elite.…read more

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Parsons- defined power as ` a positive social capacity for achieving communal ends'.
In his view if A and B cooperate, not only will they increase their own power, but they will
also contribute to the general good.
Arendt- saw power and violence Lukes- wrote about "The 3 faces of power" he claimed that
as antagonstic. "Where the one governments had 3 ways of controlling people:
rules, the other is absent and 1. Decision making power
violence can destroy.
2. Non-decision making
3. Ideological power
Decision making power:
The one where governments like
to be judged. Non-Decision making power:
The power that governments have
to control the agenda in debates. Ideological power:
The power to influence or
manipulate peoples thoughts.…read more


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