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The Enlightenment
· Period in the 18th Century
· Emergence of scientific rationalism
· Critical questioning of traditional institutions, customs, and
morals
Science
· Knowledge is based on empirical evidence
· Scientists ignore personal feelings
· Remains objective at all times
· Rational & logical thinking
· Observations, theories & hypotheses must be testable…read more

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Falsification
Karl Popper (1959)
· We can never be 100% certain that a theory is true
· The `Big Bang' theory
· Many scientists accept this theory
· Supported by lots of observational data
· BUT there might be evidence that is yet to be discovered
· This could disprove or falsify the theory
If you attempt to disprove a theory, and it withstands all tests =
accepted!
But can never be finally proven…read more

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Rationalism
· Before science, there were too many conflicting beliefs for
them all to be true
· Religion has no claim on truth at all
· = science & religion in conflict!…read more

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Relativism
· Science shouldn't be given special status
· Science = certain knowledge about world
· Religion = moral guidance about world
· Science is just 1 of many beliefs
· All are equally valid…read more

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Relativism
· Closely linked to postmodernism
· There are many beliefs in society; science is just 1 of them!
· Science has no more claim on truth than any other belief
· Scientists are human beings too... Possible for them to be
100% objective!?
· And being objective is the main requirement of scientific
method of acquiring knowledge…read more

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