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Page 1

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The Respiratory System
FUNCTIONS:
Supplies the body with OXYGEN
Excretes CARBON DIOXIDE
Maintains the pH of body fluids

LUNG CONSTITUTION:

RIGHT LUNG ­ Both SHORTER and WIDER than the left lung
3 LOBES: Superior (top), Middle, Inferior (bottom)
2 FISSURES: Oblique (running down) & Horizontal

LEFT LUNG ­ Both NARROWER…

Page 2

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LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT: TRACHEA > BRONCHI (PRIMARY, SECONDARY & TERTIARY) >
BRONCHIOLES > ALVEOLI

DIVISION ACCORDING TO FUNTION:

CONDUCTING ZONE: NOSE > PHARYNX > LARYNX > TRACHEA > BRONCHI > BRONCHIOLES >
TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES
RESPIRATORY ZONE: RESPIRATORY BRONCHIOLES > ALVEOLAR DUCTS > ALVEOLAR SACS >
ALVEOLI

THE NASAL CAVITY
FUNTIONS:…

Page 3

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BRONCHIAL TREE:
TRACHEA > PRIMARY BRONCHI > SECONDARY BRONCHI (3 IN RIGHT, 2 IN LEFT) > TERTIARY
BRONCHI > BRONCHIOLES > TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES
The RIGHT primary bronchus is WIDER, SHORTER and more VERTICAL than the left.
The almost vertical continuation of the trachea could lead to BLOCKAGES.

HISTOLOGICAL FEATURES




BLOOD…

Page 4

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THE MECHANICS OF BREATHING

PULMONARY VENTILATION
THE EXCHANGE OF AIR BETWEEN THE ATOMOSPHERE AND THE ALVEOLI IN THE LUNGS

MOVEMENT OF CHEST WALL DURING PULMONARY VENTILATION:

QUIET INSPIRATION: diaphragm (80%) external intercostals (20%)
QUIET EXPIRATION: PASSIVE, based on the elasticity of the lungs.

FORCED INSPIRATION:
SCALENES ­ originate from the…

Page 5

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RESISTANCE TO AIRFLOW
During INHALATION, bronchioles ENLARGE > there is a DECREASED RESISTANCE
Airway diameter is regulated by CONTRACTION/RELAXATION of smooth muscle in airways

HOW DO WE ASSESS LUNG FUNTION?
CHEST SOUNDS: mucus/fluid/popping/absence
PULMONARY FUNCTIONS TEST: measures the speed at which you are able to breathe out



INHALATION: UPWARD DEFLECTION…

Page 6

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GAS TRANSPORT AND THE CONTROL OF VENTILATION

Atmospheric air is a mixture of gases.

DALTON'S LAW OF PARTIAL PRESSURE
"The total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressure exerted
independently by each gas in the mixture"




Atmospheric pressure at SEA LEVEL = 760mmHg
O2…

Page 7

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OXYGEN TRANSPORT
Oxygen is poorly soluble in water so only a small amount is dissolved in the plasma.
98.5% is carried bound to HAEMOGLOBIN (Hb), each HAEM PROTEIN can carry 4 O2 MOLECULES
1.5% is dissolved in the PLASMA
The graph is a SIGMOIDAL shape.

When a molecule of oxygen…

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