The Respiratory System

Information about the gross and microscopic anatomy of the respiratory system.

The classification of it's components and uses.

The machanics of breathing and control with ventilation.

HideShow resource information
Preview of The Respiratory System

First 116 words of the document:

The Respiratory System
FUNCTIONS:
Supplies the body with OXYGEN
Excretes CARBON DIOXIDE
Maintains the pH of body fluids
LUNG CONSTITUTION:
RIGHT LUNG ­ Both SHORTER and WIDER than the left lung
3 LOBES: Superior (top), Middle, Inferior (bottom)
2 FISSURES: Oblique (running down) & Horizontal
LEFT LUNG ­ Both NARROWER and LONGER than the right lung
2 LOBES: Superior & Inferior
1 FISSURE: Oblique
THE PLEURAL CAVITY:
Reduces FRICTION during breathing
Creates a PRESSURE GRADIENT to
assist VENTILATION
ISOLATES each lung
DIVISION ACCORDING TO
POSITION:
UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT: NOSE > NASAL
CAVITY > PARANASAL SINUSES > PHARYNX >
LARYNX

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT: TRACHEA > BRONCHI (PRIMARY, SECONDARY & TERTIARY) >
BRONCHIOLES > ALVEOLI
DIVISION ACCORDING TO FUNTION:
CONDUCTING ZONE: NOSE > PHARYNX > LARYNX > TRACHEA > BRONCHI > BRONCHIOLES >
TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES
RESPIRATORY ZONE: RESPIRATORY BRONCHIOLES > ALVEOLAR DUCTS > ALVEOLAR SACS >
ALVEOLI
THE NASAL CAVITY
FUNTIONS:
WARMS, CLEANSES and HUMIDIFIES inhaled air
Detects ODOURS
Resonating chamber that modifies VOICE
THE PHARYNX
Continuous with the NASAL CAVITY and extends from the
NOSE to the LARYNX (base of skull to 6th cervical vertebra.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

BRONCHIAL TREE:
TRACHEA > PRIMARY BRONCHI > SECONDARY BRONCHI (3 IN RIGHT, 2 IN LEFT) > TERTIARY
BRONCHI > BRONCHIOLES > TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES
The RIGHT primary bronchus is WIDER, SHORTER and more VERTICAL than the left.
The almost vertical continuation of the trachea could lead to BLOCKAGES.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

THE MECHANICS OF BREATHING
PULMONARY VENTILATION
THE EXCHANGE OF AIR BETWEEN THE ATOMOSPHERE AND THE ALVEOLI IN THE LUNGS
MOVEMENT OF CHEST WALL DURING PULMONARY VENTILATION:
QUIET INSPIRATION: diaphragm (80%) external intercostals (20%)
QUIET EXPIRATION: PASSIVE, based on the elasticity of the lungs.
FORCED INSPIRATION:
SCALENES ­ originate from the transverse proves from the cervical
vertebrae of C2 to C7 and insert onto the first and second ribs.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

RESISTANCE TO AIRFLOW
During INHALATION, bronchioles ENLARGE > there is a DECREASED RESISTANCE
Airway diameter is regulated by CONTRACTION/RELAXATION of smooth muscle in airways
HOW DO WE ASSESS LUNG FUNTION?
CHEST SOUNDS: mucus/fluid/popping/absence
PULMONARY FUNCTIONS TEST: measures the speed at which you are able to breathe out
INHALATION: UPWARD DEFLECTION
EXHALATION: DOWNWARD DEFLECTION
FVC = forced vital capacity (deep breath followed
by a rapid maximal exhalation)
FEV1 = forced expiratory volume in a second
(Diagnosis of obstructive disorders e.g.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

GAS TRANSPORT AND THE CONTROL OF VENTILATION
Atmospheric air is a mixture of gases.
DALTON'S LAW OF PARTIAL PRESSURE
"The total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressure exerted
independently by each gas in the mixture"
Atmospheric pressure at SEA LEVEL = 760mmHg
O2 = 20.9% of the atmosphere
Therefore: 20.9% X 760mmHg = 158mmHg
HENRY'S LAW
"the amount of gas that dissolves in water is determined by its SOLUBILITY IN WATER and it's
PARTIAL PRESSURE IN AIR.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

OXYGEN TRANSPORT
Oxygen is poorly soluble in water so only a small amount is dissolved in the plasma.
98.5% is carried bound to HAEMOGLOBIN (Hb), each HAEM PROTEIN can carry 4 O2 MOLECULES
1.5% is dissolved in the PLASMA
The graph is a SIGMOIDAL shape.
When a molecule of oxygen binds to the
haemoglobin of a red blood cell, the
AFFINITY for oxygen in that cell increased
as the COMPOSITION of the RBC is
changed.…read more

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Nursing resources:

See all Nursing resources »See all resources »