The Experience of Warfare: The Home Front

Section 4 of the Experience of Warfare on the Home Front AS Edexcel History

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  • Created on: 19-05-13 14:35
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4. The Home Front
4.1. DORA and government control
4.2. The creation and recruitment of a mass army
4.3. Support for and opposition to the war
4.4. The war economy
4.5. The impact of the war on women
4.6. Propaganda and public attitudes

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DORA and government control
The Defence of the Realm Act (DORA)
A) Introduced 8th August 1914
B) Gave government powers to decide:
a. Where people work
b. Control industry
c. Censor the press
d.…read more

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Central Board of Control
i. June 1915
ii. Restrict alcohol sales to certain areas
iii. 1917, 93% of public subject to regulations
c. Sales of beers with chasers or rounds of drinks prohibited
d. Alcoholic content of beer reduced and sprits restricted to 70%
e. Wine and beer 3x price
f. Spirits 4x
C) Impact:
a. Scotland, weekly conviction rate for drunkenness fell from 1,485 in 1914 to 355 in 1918
b.…read more

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The creation and recruitment of a mass army
The need for men
A) Start of war BEF = 80K men
B) Expansion priority because of:
a. Size of German Army
b.…read more

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Support and opposition to the war
Support for and opposition to the war
A) Start:
a. Patriotic enthusiasm
b. All main newspapers pro-war
c. All main political parties pro-war
d. Trade Unions agreed to reductions in their rights, to help the war effort
B) As war dragged on:
a. Siegfried Sassoon in 1917
b. Number of strikes rise after 1916
c. 1918: 5.9M working days lost due to strikes
C) However,
a. Workers did strikes to economic issues, not the war
b.…read more

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G) 6,300 CO served in Non-Combatant Corps
H) 7,750 worked for Pelham Committee
I) 1,500 absolutists jailed.…read more

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The war economy
A) War economy = government intervention in industrial production and the labour market
B) Reserved occupations, like coal mining, were restricted from conscription due to need of
manpower back home
C) Some skilled workers even had to return from trenches to help on the Home Front
D) Economy remained in private ownership
E) But gov't took control over labour, production and prices
F) Profits in war industries were prohibited to exceed those of 1913
Sector in the Gov't action
Munitions 1.…read more

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The impact of the war on women
Women and work during WWI
A) Need for servicemen meant women workforce increase of 1.6M
B) Transport = 12,423 in 1914 -> 65,000 in 1918
C) Undertook unconventional jobs for women such as signal operating
D) 1916, London's Omnibus Company aimed to train 500 a month as drivers
E) Agriculture = Women's Land Army (WLA) formed in Jan 1917
a.…read more

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E) Many forced out of jobs afterwards
F) Women's pay only half of men's…read more

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Propaganda and public attitudes
The press, propaganda ad censorship
A) Newspapers used to disseminate propaganda
B) Newspaper owners Lords Northcliffe, Rothermore and Beaverbrook happy to do this
C) Gov't established secret propaganda department early on
D) 1917, Ministry for Information set up included Propaganda section and a News Bureau which
censored press stories and issued D-notices
War reporting
A) Initially not permitted on Western Front in concern of morale
B) After complaint from MPs, Col.…read more



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