the effects of smoking on the body ( CO nicotine and tar)

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  • Created on: 13-07-11 19:57
Preview of the effects of smoking on the body ( CO nicotine and tar)

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Emma Dixon Y37406
s of
TAR- short term effects
Settles on the lining of the airways and alveoli, increasing diffusion distance for
gaseous exchange
May cause an allergic reaction. This causes the smooth muscle in the airways to
contract, decreasing the size of the lumen and therefore restricting air flow to the
Paralyses/ destroys cilia so they cannot waft mucus to the back of the throat. Tar
also stimulates goblet cells to produce more mucus which collects in the airways.
Bacteria and viruses trapped in the mucus are able to multiply and eventually a
combination of mucus and bacteria may block the bronchioles.
TAR- long term effects
Smokers cough. An attempt to shift the bacteria laden mucus to allow normal air
flow to the alveoli. Caused by irritation of the airways.
This cough damages the lining of the airways and the alveoli. This is then replaced
with scar tissue which is thicker and less flexible. The layer of smooth muscle in the
bronchioles also thickens, reducing the lumen of the airway. Airflow restricted.
Frequent infection from bacteria laden mucus in lungs causes inflammation. Damages
epithelium. This attracts WBCs. WBC's release enzymes which digest part of the lining
of the lungs to pass through into the air spaces. The enzyme elastase is used. This
damages the elasticity of the alveolus wall. As we exhale , the alveoli do not recoil to
push air out and eventually burst.
TAR- Lung cancer
Smoke contains carcinogenic compounds especially benzopyrene.
Enters the cells of the lung tissue.
Enter nucleus and affect genetic material. This change of genetic material is called mutation.
If the mutation affects the genes responsible for cell division, then uncontrolled cell division
may take place.
Cancer starts at the entrance to the bronchi.
20 ­ 30 years to develop.

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Emma Dixon Y37406
Chronic Bronchitis
Inflammation of the lining of the airways. Accompanied by damage to cilia and
overproduction of mucus so mucus collects in the lungs.
Symptoms= irritation in lungs, coughing, coughing up mucus containing bacteria and
WBCs. Increased risk of lung infection
Loss of elasticity in the alveoli causing bursting. Lungs have reduced s.a. less s.a for
gaseous exchange. Hard to exhale. Short of breath. Blood is not oxygenated properly
so fatigue occurs.
Combo of diseases.…read more

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Emma Dixon Y37406
Mimics transmitter substances at synapses between nerves. NS more sensitive and
smoker feels alert.
Causes release of adrenaline. Increased heart rate. Increased breathing rate.
Constriction of arterioles. Raises BP in arterioles.
Causes constriction of arterioles leading to extremeties. Reduces blood flow
oxygen delivery. Extreme cases= amputation.
Makes platelets sticky. Increases risk of thrombus forming.
Combines with haemoglobin much more readily than oxygen to form
carboxyhaemolobin. This reduces oxygen carrying ability of blood. Causes heart rate
to rise.…read more

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Emma Dixon Y37406
Problems caused by changes in
the blood system
CO damages endothelium of arteries.
Damage repaired by action of WBC's which encourage growth of smooth muscle and
deposition of fatty substances inc cholesterol.
The deposits, atheromas, are also made up of fibres, dead blood cells and platelets.
Atheromas build up under the endothelium in walls of artery and breaks through the
inner lining of the artery.
Atheroms form a plaque which sticks out into the lumen of the artery.…read more

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Emma Dixon Y37406
2: Tar paralyses the cilia so they cannot waft mucus to the back of the throat. Tar also
stimulates the production of mucus from goblet cells. This means that the mucus is being
produced, and is picking up bacteria and viruses, but cannot be wafted to the throat. This
means it settles in the lung. The smokers cough is the lungs trying to expel the
bacteria/virus laden bacteria from the lungs.…read more


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