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Emma Dixon Y37406

s of
TAR- short term effects
Settles on the lining of the airways and alveoli, increasing diffusion distance for
gaseous exchange
May cause an allergic reaction. This causes the smooth muscle in the airways to
contract, decreasing the size of the lumen and…

Page 2

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Emma Dixon Y37406

Chronic Bronchitis
Inflammation of the lining of the airways. Accompanied by damage to cilia and
overproduction of mucus so mucus collects in the lungs.

Symptoms= irritation in lungs, coughing, coughing up mucus containing bacteria and
WBCs. Increased risk of lung infection

Loss of elasticity…

Page 3

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Emma Dixon Y37406

Mimics transmitter substances at synapses between nerves. NS more sensitive and
smoker feels alert.
Causes release of adrenaline. Increased heart rate. Increased breathing rate.
Constriction of arterioles. Raises BP in arterioles.
Causes constriction of arterioles leading to extremeties. Reduces blood flow
oxygen delivery. Extreme cases= amputation.…

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Emma Dixon Y37406

Problems caused by changes in
the blood system
CO damages endothelium of arteries.
Damage repaired by action of WBC's which encourage growth of smooth muscle and
deposition of fatty substances inc cholesterol.
The deposits, atheromas, are also made up of fibres, dead blood cells and platelets.…

Page 5

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Emma Dixon Y37406

2: Tar paralyses the cilia so they cannot waft mucus to the back of the throat. Tar also
stimulates the production of mucus from goblet cells. This means that the mucus is being
produced, and is picking up bacteria and viruses, but cannot be wafted to the…


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