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The Cold War 1945 ­ 1991
1939 to 1945 Second World War was fought between the Axis Countries (Nazi Germany,
Japan and Italy) and the Allies (chiefly Britain, the USA and the USSR).
The USSR and the USA were bound only by the need to defeat their common
enemies: the…

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6th August At 8:15 AM an American B29 bomber dropped an atom bomb,
codename `Little Boy' onto the Japanese city of Hiroshima. 78,000
people were killed outright.
9th August Americans dropped `Fat Man' atom bomb onto city of Nagasaki. A
further 74,000 people were killed.
15 August Japan surrendered.…

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According to the Truman Doctrine, Eastern European countries had
been forced into communism but the USSR. It was the USA's duty to
protect any democratic countries under threat: the `Containment of
United States Congress announced that it was giving $400 million of
aid to Greece and Turkey. This money…

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There was a strong communist party in Italy which belonged to Cominform and had
plans to take over the government. Likewise in France.
Marshall Tito in Yugoslavia split with the USSR: Stalin ordered Cominform to expel Tito,
because he would not give in to Stalin's wishes.
This suggested to the…

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Truman had two options: surrender West Berlin or go to war. Neither seemed like a
good idea, so the British and the Americans devised a less aggressive way of
keeping the people in West Berlin from starving. They flew in the supplies.
26th June The first flight.
The airlift began…

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The original members were the USA, Canada, Britain, France,
Belgium, the Netherlands, Iceland, Luxembourg, Italy, Norway,
Denmark and Portugal.
All members agreed to go to war if any one of them was attacked.
It meant the permanent presence of a US army in Europe: the
Americans had made a lasting…

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help. Normally, the USSR would have vetoed any attempt to support
South Korea, but it was boycotting UN meetings in protest at the
UN's refusal to admit communist China as a member. Therefore the
UN Security Council declared North Korea to be the aggressor.
(After the Korean War broke out,…

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The American army in West Germany received its first nuclear weapons designed for
use on the battlefield.
However, American politicians claimed that they had fewer nuclear weapons than
the USSR; in fact the USSR had only about 50 atom bombs, (and did not catch up
with the USA until 1978.)…

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Although no decisions were made, the Geneva Summit marked the
high point in the `thaw' of Cold War relations.
1956 Khrushchev made a secret speech to the communist party. In it he denounced Stalin
as a cruel tyrant. Stalin's statues came down, cities were renamed, the secret police
became less…

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4th November The Red Army returned in strength and crushed the uprising. 4,000
Hungarians were killed. Perhaps as many as 200,000 fled to the West.

Results of the Hungarian Uprising: Nagy was arrested then executed;
protesters were imprisoned; 300 people were executed; a hard line
communist government under Janos Kadar…


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