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The Cell Cycle
1. Interphase: (comes before mitosis)
Before the cell can enter division, it must prepare itself by replicating all
its genetic information and organelles. Interphase proceeds in four stages;
G0, G1, S, and G2.
G0 phase: When the cell leaves the cell cycle and quit dividing. It can
be just a resting period or more permanent. The cell may have
reached an end of stage development and will no longer divide.
G1 phase: The interval between mitosis and DNA replication that is
characterised by cell growth.
S phase: Begins with the replication of cellular DNA. When the
cellular DNA has been duplicated, leaving the cell with twice as many
chromosomes the cell moves onto the G2 phase.
G2 phase: Proteins such as kinase, which are necessary for cell
division are synthesized. The chromosomes begin to condense and
the proteins necessary for construction of the mitotic spindle are
synthesized. When the chromosomes become visible, the cell enters
the 1st stage of mitosis.
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Stages of Mitosis:
The chromosomes condense, getting shorter and fatter. The
centrioles begin moving to opposite ends of the cell, forming and
network of protein fibres across it called a spindle. The nuclear
envelope breaks down and lies free in the cytoplasm.
The chromosomes (each with tow chromatids) line up along the
middle of the cell and become attached to the spindle by the
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The centromeres divide, separating each pair of sister chromatids.
The spindles contract, pulling chromatids to opposite ends of the
cell, centromeres first.
The chromatids reach the opposite poles of the spindle. They uncoil
and become long and thin again they are now called chromosomes
A nuclear envelope forms around each group of chromosomes, so
there are two nuclei.
The cytoplasm divides and there are now two daughter cells that
are genetically identical to the original cell and to each other.…read more