Slides in this set
1. Information enters our memory store through our senses, and if we pay
attention to it, it passes through to our short-term memory. If no attention is
payed to it, the information is lost.
2. Memory in our short-term memory is passed through to our long-term memory
if we rehearse it. If we don't rehearse the information, it decays and leaves our
3. Our long-term memory is the last memory store, and here information is lost
through decay if we don't recall it often, and lost through interference.…read more
Sensory Short-term Long-term
Encoding Sense-specific encoding Mainly auditory Mainly semantic
Duration ¼ to ½ a second (a 0-18 seconds Infinite
Capacity All of our senses 5-9 items Unlimited
Forgetting If the info picked up isn't Decay when we don't Decay when we don't
important is it dismissed rehearse info and rehearse or retrieve info
through interference for some time + through
Retrieval Retrieved in the order it Retrieved by association
appeared in…read more
Murdock 1962 Clive Wearing (Case Study) Miller and Jacobs
Aim investigate free recall and its Clive suffered memory loss and had a Participants were asked to recall
effect on memory to provide evidence poor STM. His LTM is barely functioning sequences of three digits or numbers.
to support the MSM. but he is still able to recall small pieces The sequences increased by one item
Method P's given a list of words to of information in his STM for around each time until participants could no
remember, and were asked to recall seven seconds. He supports the idea longer recall the sequence.
them in any order. that the STM and the LTM are separate The average number of items recalled
Results Words at the end of the list memory stores therefore supporting by participants was between 5 and 9,
were recalled first, and the words at the explanation. which supports the models explanation
the start were also recalled well. of the capacity of our STM.
Conclusion the last words in the list
were still in our STM and the first
words were rehearsed and passed
through to our LTM (Primacy and recency effect)
Other supporting studies include: Bahrick et al (1975), Conrad (1964) , Peterson and Peterson (1959), HM Case study…read more
Evaluation using SCODA Supporting studies, criticisms, opposing studies, different theory,
S Murdock's study into free recall is a supporting study as the experiment showed that words at the start of a list
and at the end we're recalled better than those in the middle. This is because the words at the start of the list were in
the LTM from rehearsal and the words at the end of the list were still in the STM The experiment demonstrates the
separate memory stores described in the theory.
C Was a laboratory experiment and so the conditions and extraneous variables were well controlled and
standardised procedures were most likely used. This means that the experiment can be repeated to check for
O Clive Wearing supports the study by showing that we have separate memory stores. However, he still carries
some LTM which shows that memory is more complex than the model describes.
D - The working model of memory is different from the multi store model as it shows that...
A- The theory can be useful to students revising for exams as it shows that rehearsing information helps it to pass
through to out LTM, so they could use rehearsal when trying to learn.…read more