Synaptic transmission and divisions of the central nervous system

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Biopsychologists generally regard the brain and the mind to be the same thing
Neurons and synaptic transmission
The nerve impulse (or electrical impulse)
starts at the dendrites and then travels
through the axon which is covered in
myelin sheaths which act as insulters,
thus speeding up transmission.
Once the electrical impulse gets to the
axon ending it meets with vesicles which
are like packets of neurotransmitters.
These are released through the synapse
(the gap which separates two nerve
cells) and bind to receptors on the
terminal buttons of another axon.
There are three types of neurons...
Sensory neurons : Receive messages from the outside world through our different senses
(sight, hearing, smell, touch, taste). These messages are sent to our central nervous system
(carry nerve impulse from the receptors in the body TOWARDS the brain and spine (CNS) )
Motor neurons : Carry nerve impulses from our central nervous system to a muscle causing
it to contract. (AWAY from the brain and spine )
Interneurons Are found only in the CNS and connect neurons to other neurones, including
sensory and motor neurones. They account for over 95% of all neurons in the nervous system,
with most located in the brain.
Neurotransmitters found in the synaptic vesicles are known to have effects on behaviour and
mental processes:
Dopamine: is a neurotransmitter that helps control the brain's reward and pleasure
centers. Dopamine also helps regulate movement and emotional responses, and it enables
us not only to see rewards, but to take action to move toward them. Dopamine deficiency
results in Parkinson's Disease, and people with low dopamine activity may be more prone
to addiction.
Serotonin: is a neurotransmitter with functions in various systems of the body. In the
central nervous system serotonin works to regulate mood, appetite, sleep and wakefulness

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Low levels of serotonin have been associated with aggression in
Endorphins: Reduce feelings of pain known as the body's natural painkiller. Also have a
role in producing pleasurable sensations.…read more


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