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Child Psychology
Key words
Attachment a two way continuous and loving bond between a child and care giver that
produces security and stability for the child
Deprivation loss of a formed attachment i.e. due to divorce of parents or death
Privation the extreme circumstance of an attachment not being formed…

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Emphasised importance of relationship between child and single primary caregiver
Believed attachment occurred instinctively and was necessary for child's survival
First 6 months ­ child displays proximity seeking behaviours e.g. crying, smiling, clinging ­
encourage the formation of a bond between child and caregiver
Start to develop stranger anxiety…

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32% of thieves were affectionless psychopaths ­ 86% suffered maternal deprivation
20% of thieves were depressed
Less than 5% of thieves were `normal'
17% of thieves (not affectionless psychopaths) suffered maternal deprivation
0% of control group were affectionless psychopaths
30% of control group were depressed
20% of control group were…

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Children were apathetic, withdrawn, and had a loss of appetite
Found both physical and mental deterioration ­ caused by being in hospital for a long time
and deprived of their mother
Symptoms reversed if period of maternal deprivation was less than 3 months ­ irreversible
if longer
Compared children in…

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Ainsworth's Strange Situation and cross-cultural issues regarding
child-rearing styles
Ainsworth & Bell ­ Strange Situation
Said there are different variations of attachment ­ secure and insecure (avoidant and
Structured observation
26 mother-child pairs
Mother and child play happily
Stranger enters room
Parent leaves infant and stranger alone
Parent returns…

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Only looked at mother-infant pairs ­ same as Ainsworth's study
32 samples from 8 countries
Germany ­ 3 studies ­ 136 mother-infant pairs - secure 57% ­ avoidant 35% - resistant 8%
Great Britain ­ 1 study ­ 72 mother-infant pairs ­ secure 75% - avoidant 22% - resistant 3%…

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Lost mother shortly after birth
Cared for by a social agency for a year
Fostered by a maternal aunt for 6 months
Development was normal
Father remarried ­ new wife was cruel to twins ­ banished them to cellar for next 5 ½
years ­ beat them from time to…

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Followed up to see how they recovered from early privation
Found in Terezin they could hardly speak but were strongly attached to one another,
showing separation anxiety when separated
All developed normal intelligence
1 sought psychiatric help when older ­ another described feeling alone and isolated
Children all had several…

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Rescued and put into LA Children's Hopsital ­ mental and physical development began
almost immediately
Keen to learn new words
Began helping dress herself, using the toilet voluntarily, and moving more smoothly
Worked the team of scientists (Genie Team)
Within several months, Genie had a vocabulary of about 100 words…

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Cannot empathise with other people
Like repetitive behaviours and routines
Gifted in terms of logic
Find it difficult to make eye contact

Cognitive explanation ­ lack of theory of mind ­ Baron Cohen 1997
Typically developing children develop the theory of mind at around 3 years
Able to understand that…




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