summary of carbonyl compounds

A summary of the key points needed for As chemistry on Carbonyl comounds.

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By Olivia Blanchet 7/4/2010
Summary of carbonyl compounds
Observation on
explanation of
Oxidising agents Conditions oxidation of an
observation
aldehyde
the orange
dichromate (6)
acidified the orange
boil gently ion. Is reduced
potassium solution turns
(reflux) to green
dichromate (6) green
chromium (3)
ion.
Fehling's solution
the CU ion is
(an alkaline
warm red precipitate reduced to red
solution of Cu
CUO.
ions)
a silver mirror
Tollens reagent
forms on the
(an aqueous the silver(1) ion
sides of the test
solution of silver warm is reduced to
tube from the
nitrate in excess silver metal.
colourless
ammonia)
solution.
Aldehydes Ketones
structural structural
name name
formula formula
methanal
HCHO
(formaldehyde)
ethanal
CHCHO
(acetaldehyde)
propanone
propanal CHCHCHO (CH)CO
(acetone)

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By Olivia Blanchet 7/4/2010
butanal CHCHCHCHO butanone CHCOCHCH
Aldehydes and ketones contain the carbonyl group,
C=O. In aldehydes the carbonyl group is joined to
just one other carbon atom; in ketones the carbonyl
group is joined to two other carbon atoms.
The systematic names of aldehydes are derived
from the name of the alkane with the `-e' replaced
by `-al'. Similarly ketones are named with the `-e'
replaced by `-one'.
As the carbonyl group is very polar, aldehydes and
ketones are water soluble.…read more

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By Olivia Blanchet 7/4/2010
Aldehydes are readily oxidsed under mild conditions
to carboxylic acids. Ketones are not oxidised under
mild conditions.
The polar nature of the carbonyl group in aldehydes
and ketones enables them to undergo nucleophilic
addition of hydrogen cyanide to form
hydroxynitriles.…read more

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