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Informative ­ in a lecture (referential)
Social ­ in an informal conversation (phatic)
Aim to get something done ­ a telephone call to a plumber
Reveal a speaker's personal state of mind/attitude

In each case, the context, audience and speaker's intentions will
dictate the linguistic…

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The topic and goal of a spoken encounter are also directly
related to the manner and the participants
The more clearly defined the purpose ­ the more formal the
exchange is likely to be
A formal speech will often first be written in note form or in
full ­ will…


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