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Social Structure in Russia
Tsar no one else to challenge their power.
Court, Ministers and Civil Servants 3.7% - Imperial Council
Cabinet of Ministers listen to ideas
Senate make laws
Russian Orthodox Church 1.1% conservative, obey the Tsar, their role and position is God's will and
they oppose to any change. Want to preserve the Tsar and taught people not to change their life.
Army 5% - Conscripted (punishment), Brutal (treated badly and lived in bad conditions), were a huge
expense (45% of Russia's funding went to the army, in comparison with the 5 % that went to
Nobility 1.1% - Class of wealthy landowners, thought that slaves should be avoided and had a good
Workers 89.1% - 32.3% state peasants (owned by the state under their authority)
50.7% serfs (slaves, property of the landowner, could be sold and had no legal
Industry potential natural resources (iron and coal)
Why Economy was held back
Industry protected duties on foreign imports.
Unstable banks can't set up businesses because they won't lend.
Serfdom no reason to invest in machinery etc.
Poor communications Russia is vast and there were poor train systems and poor roads.
Okhrana, secret police (it was an offense to oppose the Tsar)
Many members of the ruling class began to accept that major reforms were needed if Russia
was going to be able to overcome her social and economic backwardness. However,
progress was restricted as there were two main contrasting schools of thought:
o Russian supremacy superior to the west
o Duty to protect
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o Adopts western ideas thought that they could learn form
o Literature and discussions.
1836-54 the amount of university students doubled and a large proportion began to think
Land of Tsars
On the 14th December 1825, Nicholas I was due to be crowned Tsar of Russia. However, disgruntled
radicals filled with fresh ideas from France tried to place Nicholas' brother on the throne and
establish a constitutional monarchy.…read more
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In 1861 he emancipated (freed) the serfs because modernisation wasn't possible with
serfs and people were needed to work in factories.
Peasants were granted ownership of the house where they lived and the land the land
lord needed compensation.
Redemption payments peasants forced to pay over 49 years as the government could
afford to pay.…read more