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Unit 3 Sociology; Beliefs in Society
Different theories of Ideology, Science and Religion

An Ideology is a closed set of beliefs that reject other views. A Belief is a framework of
ideas through which an individual makes sense of the world. They are generally connected to
a religion and based…

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The Relationship between Religious Beliefs, Social Change and Stability

Functionalism
Functionalist perspective sees religion as mainly a conservative force, promoting social
harmony, social integration and Social Solidarity (integration of people into society through
shared common values) through the reinforcement of the Value Consensus (widespread
agreement around the main values of…

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class. The pain of oppression was eased in three main ways according to a Marxist; 1)
Religion promises an eventual escape from suffering and oppression with life after death. 2)
Religion sometimes offers hope of supernatural intervention to solve problems on earth. 3)
Religion provides a religious explanation and justification…

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Religious fundamentalism is seen by its followers as a return to the basics or fundamentals of
religion. Usually it involves a literal interpretation f religious texts and strict moral codes of
behaviour. It's a particularly Conservative Form of religion (looks backwards, rejects many of
the changes in modern society and…

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traditional religions have become ritualistic and devoid of spiritual meaning may find comfort
and a greater sense of community in smaller less impersonal NRM's. The projected total over
50 years of church goers in Britain is declining considerably with elder people more likely to
attend church. Weber uses Disenchantment (process…

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four following concepts explain why sects emerge: 1) Social Deprivation ­ lack of status or
power like that seen by the working class. 2) Marginality ­ where some are pushed to the
edges of society by poverty or lack of education and face social exclusion. 3) Theodicy of
Disprivelege ­…

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Wallis and Bruce see cults differing from sects in that, whereas sects are very tightly knit,
closed groups with strong demands on the commitment of members and strong internal
discipline. Cults are often loosely knit groupings, open to all and highly individualistic.
Giddens suggest that the focus on the self,…

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The Relationship between different Social Groups and Religious/Spiritual
Organisations and Movements, Beliefs and Practices

Gender and Religion
Most Feminists focus on the way in which many existing religions are patriarchal, with writers
like de Beauvoir and El Saadawi seeing religion and religious ideology playing a part in
maintaining the male…

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Muslim communities in Britain and some Islamic countries can be interpreted as a form of
resisting patriarchy, by providing an independent female identity and freeing women from
male harassment.

Women are more likely than men to have religious belief and to practice their religion.
Compared to men women are more…

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Marginality and Status Frustration ­ people may turn to religion as a secure and solid
source of identity, status and community which they find lacking in mainstream society.
Family Pressures ­ in Asian communities the family structure is much closer with a very large
extended family in the background for…

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