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Page 1

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Topic 6: Organisations, movements and members




Types of religious organisation
Troeltsch
Church

Large organisations
complicated hierarchy
Universalistic
Believe they have a monopoly of religious truth

Sect

Small organisations
Led by a characteristic leader
Highly exclusive and hostile of wider society
Expect high levels of commitment
Believe they have a monopoly…

Page 2

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Topic 6: Organisations, movements and members




World ­ rejecting NRMs

Clearly religious with a clear belief in god
Highly critical of the outside world
Members must break away from their former life
Restricted contact with the outside world
Often accused of brainwashing members
Have conservative moral views

World ­ accommodating…

Page 3

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Topic 6: Organisations, movements and members




Stark and Bainbridge
Relative deprivation

Relative deprivation: How deprived someone feels in relation to those around them
Middle class people may feel spiritually deprived especially in modern consumerist society so
they turn to sects to counter this and gain a sense of community
It…

Page 4

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Topic 6: Organisations, movements and members




Sects are short lived and there are several reasons for this:

The second generation

Children who are born into the sect lack the commitment and the fervour of their parents who
made the conscious decision

The protestant ethic effect

Sects that practice asceticism tend…

Page 5

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Topic 6: Organisations, movements and members




Globalisation will make it harder for sects to stay apart

Heelas
Two common themes that characterise the new age
Self-spirituality: New agers have turned away from the traditional external religions and instead
look inside themselves
Detraditionalisation: The new age rejects the spiritual authority of…

Page 6

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Topic 6: Organisations, movements and members




Religiosity and social groups
Gender
High positions in most religions are male
Women participate more in relaigion

Miller and Hoffman
Socialisation and Gender role

Women are more religious as they have been socilaised to be passive and obedient
Women are more likely to half…

Page 7

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Topic 6: Organisations, movements and members




Bruce
Cultural defence

Religion offers support and a sense of cultural identity. Religion is a means of preserving culture
and language and of coping with oppression

Herberg
Cultural transition

Religion can be a means of easing the transition into a new culture by providing…

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