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Functionalist sociologists
· Durkheim: Education links individuals and society by transmitting norms and values= social solidarity
School= Mini societies where= learn how to interact with others
Teach specific work skills for an industrialized/industrial society.
· Parsons: School teach universalistic values that we are all judged by, unlike family where we are seen as
individuals. Bridge between family and society.
Teaches fundamental values of society through secondary socialization.
Role allocation, school selects people for their future roles in society.
· Davis & Moore: Saw education as sorting and sifting people according to their abilities. Most able = gain
higher qualifications.
See education as meritocratic
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Marxist sociologists
· Bowles & Gintis: Values & expectations held by school= taught via the hidden curriculum. This produces
a divided and exploitable work force.
The correspondence principle= where school structured in way to mirror work force
Students taught hierarchy, power, organization of work, motivation and equal
opportunity
The myth of meritocracy, in reality some social groups= better educational opportunities.
Working class taught failure their fault.
· Bordieu: Developed the concept of Cultural Capital. Middle class= advantage over working class pupils as
language & values correspond with school.
· Althusser: Working class is repressed and prevented from rebelling through ideological state apparatus
(media & church) which spreads middle class values and the repressive state apparatus
(police & army)
· Willis: Learning to labor study. 12 working class boys= reject school values & rebelled against system, by
doing so = allocated W/C roles by failing the system. Rebellion by W/C= futile.
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su…read more

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Interactionalists
· Becker: Teachers= share common image of ideal pupil, judge pupil against model student.
Middle class= more likely to fit the model, generates the self fulfilling prophecy.
· Hargreaves et al: Labeling work in 3 stages: speculation, elaborated & stabilization
· Rosenthal & Jacobson: Measure effect of teacher expectations on attainment
high expectation= increase grade
· Ball: Differing expectation of pupils in different bands
· Spender: teachers= learned boys names more quickly & held higher economic expectations for boys
· Wright: Found primary school teachers= saw Asian students as quieter & treated insensitively
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The New right
· Chubb and Moe: Examined 60,000 students performances
& relate those to the organization of school attended.
Found link between success & degree of financial and organizational independence
Introducing market system= raise standards
· Murray: Afro- Caribbean= higher than average proportion of single parent households
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Gender in school and the classroom
· Lobban: history= male dominated & P.E activity divided in to male and female. Patriarchal Curriculum
· Kelly: Girls= access to limited classroom resources. Male students= often try take most/ best equipment
· Lees: Males= intimidate female pupils through verbal abuse & body language
· Mac an Ghail: Male gaze, see women as sexual objects= form gender surveillance
· Askew & Ross: Male teachers protect female teachers in difficult situations
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Mal
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ll…read more

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Ethnicity and educational attainment
· Kysel: look at examinations of 11 ethnic minority groups. African Asian, Pakistani = top groups, Middle
range English, Irish, Scottish & welsh.
· Pryce: absence of male role models= turbulent family life (black Caribbean students) lower self esteem
· Driver & Ballard: Asian Families= close knitt & value education so seen as `positive resource'
· Sewell: Only a minority of black boys respond to cultural deprivation in anti-school way
Respond in 4 ways to racism: Rebels, conformists, retreatists & innovators
· Modood: The high performance of Indian pupils indicates that any language disadvantage is temporary
· Gilborn & Youdell: teacher hold racialised expectations & treat black pupils more negatively as expect more
difficult to handle.
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