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Marxist sociologists
· Bowles & Gintis: Values & expectations held by school= taught via the hidden curriculum. This produces
a divided and exploitable work force.
The correspondence principle= where school structured in way to mirror work force
Students taught hierarchy, power, organization of work, motivation and equal
The myth of meritocracy, in reality some social groups= better educational opportunities.
Working class taught failure their fault.
· Bordieu: Developed the concept of Cultural Capital. Middle class= advantage over working class pupils as
language & values correspond with school.
· Althusser: Working class is repressed and prevented from rebelling through ideological state apparatus
(media & church) which spreads middle class values and the repressive state apparatus
(police & army)
· Willis: Learning to labor study. 12 working class boys= reject school values & rebelled against system, by
doing so = allocated W/C roles by failing the system. Rebellion by W/C= futile.
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· Becker: Teachers= share common image of ideal pupil, judge pupil against model student.
Middle class= more likely to fit the model, generates the self fulfilling prophecy.
· Hargreaves et al: Labeling work in 3 stages: speculation, elaborated & stabilization
· Rosenthal & Jacobson: Measure effect of teacher expectations on attainment
high expectation= increase grade
· Ball: Differing expectation of pupils in different bands
· Spender: teachers= learned boys names more quickly & held higher economic expectations for boys
· Wright: Found primary school teachers= saw Asian students as quieter & treated insensitively
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The New right
· Chubb and Moe: Examined 60,000 students performances
& relate those to the organization of school attended.
Found link between success & degree of financial and organizational independence
Introducing market system= raise standards
· Murray: Afro- Caribbean= higher than average proportion of single parent households
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Gender in school and the classroom
· Lobban: history= male dominated & P.E activity divided in to male and female. Patriarchal Curriculum
· Kelly: Girls= access to limited classroom resources. Male students= often try take most/ best equipment
· Lees: Males= intimidate female pupils through verbal abuse & body language
· Mac an Ghail: Male gaze, see women as sexual objects= form gender surveillance
· Askew & Ross: Male teachers protect female teachers in difficult situations
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ll…read more

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Ethnicity and educational attainment
· Kysel: look at examinations of 11 ethnic minority groups. African Asian, Pakistani = top groups, Middle
range English, Irish, Scottish & welsh.
· Pryce: absence of male role models= turbulent family life (black Caribbean students) lower self esteem
· Driver & Ballard: Asian Families= close knitt & value education so seen as `positive resource'
· Sewell: Only a minority of black boys respond to cultural deprivation in anti-school way
Respond in 4 ways to racism: Rebels, conformists, retreatists & innovators
· Modood: The high performance of Indian pupils indicates that any language disadvantage is temporary
· Gilborn & Youdell: teacher hold racialised expectations & treat black pupils more negatively as expect more
difficult to handle.
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