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Survey
What is a survey?
gathers information by asking questions of a large number of people, using written questionnaires and/or interviews
Gathering data:
How the Q's are asked is important
Interview:
Face to face encounter, or phone, asking Q's and recording info.
Questionnaire:
Written set of Q's, they write and then return to you, both have open/closed Q's.
Designing surveys:
1: Q's must be worded well so participant get what you mean. A shared understanding is needed to = valid.
2: How the Q's are asked, consider time to analyse and answer Q's. people could give up if to many Q's and if allot of the Q's are open, the
data is huge and very time consuming for analysis.
3: Consider sample, size and who it represents. Many people need to be chosen, and those chosen need to represent wide population
4: use a pilot study, tests for clarity and allow the surveyor to make sure all needed info is gathered.
Response set or response bias =
the tendency to stick to one response through the way the questions are asked. Qs should be set up to achieve a range of responses.
Negatives in Qs ­ should not be used, may confuse the participant.
Lying in Questionnaire ­
Social desirability:
some people may answer based on what is accepted in society, e.g some may say they are not racist as it is socially accepted
Demand characteristics :
may occur in quantitative data as the aim of survey can be guessed, participant may want to help out. Lowers validity…read more

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interviews
questionnaires and interviews
Unstructured interview:
Gives qualitative data, with open Q's and flexible structure. There is a research question but the rest is unspecified to see how things flow.
Semi-structured interview:
A schedule of Q's but researcher can have freedom for open responses.
Structured interview:
Pre-set Q's, leaves little room for follow up Q's of interest
Interview ­ strengths
1: interviewer can explore answers and ask more Qs not limited like in questionnaires
2: The data achieved is in-depth and detailed, more likely to be valid
Interview ­ weaknesses
1: Subjectivity when it comes to analysis
2: Experimenter effect, can influence participants
Questionnaire
Evaluation of questionnaires:
Strengths
1: Valid ­ Qs can be sent by post removing researcher presence, removing experimenter effect and increasing validity
2: Reliability ­ can be repeated accurately as there are set procedures and same Qs asked to all participants, allows replication so = reliable
Weaknesses
1: Reliability ­ way it administered can be different, different researchers ask different participants in different location may lower reliability
2: Validity ­ set Qs used, may give fixed answers, not true thoughts of individuals, they aren't free to say what they want, may lower validity.…read more

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Methodology PG 3
Hypothesis:
A statement predicting result of an experiment.
Alternative hypothesis:
A hypothesis which is an alternative to the null
Null hypothesis:
states that predicted results are only achieved through luck/chance. When you research you test for the null, if it is rejected then you data
shows a real effect.
open question:
Can be answered in any way the participant chooses
Qualitative data: open Q's give this, where words describe views
Strengths:
increased validity, due to more In depth analysis of answers = better conclusion + Qualitative data can be broken down into quantitative,
but not vice versa
Weaknesses:
Difficult to draw compassions between groups or arrive at a reliable conclusion, + time consuming, difficult to analyse.
closed question:
Limits the response which can be made
Quantitative data: closed questions give this type of data, where data is reduced to figures and numbers.
Strengths:
Allow group analysis of data, easily draw conclusion between things. Increased reliability+ quick and easy to analyse
Weaknesses:
greatly superficial view is created due to limitation in answer, may lower validity + interpreting the Qs is subjective, "unsure" may mean
different things to different people so low validity again.…read more

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Method Procedure strengths weakness Reliability:
Every member of population Unbiased, researcher Difficult to assess all the Concerns the consistency of data, a
Random
has equal chance of being has no control over who population so that a random reliable test could be done several
sampling
chosen is chosen sample can take place. times with similar characteristics and
have same results.
Stratified representation of the Very representative of Very time consuming +
sampling population broken down into target population + difficult and bias can occur Validity:
a smaller version with all key limits the amount of as some groups may be Concerns the genuineness of results if
aspects. E.G gender, age people needed. excluded hard to have all. they tested and measured what they
Opportunity Participants chosen from Easy and quick, Not representative of whole said they did. Something else could be
sampling whoever is available at the Also ethical as population, the cause for the results which we
time of the study. researcher can judge if May also be a certain group believe to be due to a different cause,
person will be upset to of people e.g. those who leading to it being invalid.
take part or is too busy don't work and stay home.
Volunteer Participants select Ethical, people are Motivation can cause Subjectivity:
sampling themselves by E.G willing to be involved, + changes in behaviour, + bias Concerns the interpretation of
advertisement. more likely to cooperate as maybe only a certain type data. Is our view of results shared
so less social desirability. of people volunteer. by others, are we blinded by own
experience. Research needs a
objective view of something.
Ethical issues:
Methodology
Fully informed consent:
They should be told full aim of study, and what procedure will occur. Sometime not possible
E.G (Milgram) so, good debrief needed
Deception:
Participants should not be deceived, however sometimes it may be necessary so they have to agree to do the test knowing that they will not be
told all the info
Right to withdraw:
Free to leave any time, can take/ destroy their data. If paid for experiment, they still keep $
Competent:
Researcher must have the necessary qualifications, if in doubt they must seek advice and help from someone who is competent.
Debrief:
At end of study, fully tell them aim, offer time to ask any questions. Allows recording of experience…read more

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behavioural study of
obedience to Prejudice and
malevolent authority discrimination
(Milgram, 1963)
Content
Administrative
obedience and social identity
agency theory…read more

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