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Social Inequality and Difference Emma Rudd

2A Concepts and Measures of Poverty

Poverty restricts your opportunities and life chances. It is bad in itself as well as leading to other
problems such as crime, poor health and family breakdown. Poverty has always been a
controversial matter, there a major disagreements…

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Social Inequality and Difference Emma Rudd

Which unit of assessment is appropriate? Researchers can choose to focus on
individuals or the benefit unit (e.g. couple or lone parent with dependent children) or
households (i.e. taking into account the pooled income of all members of the household,
including working children).

Page 3

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Social Inequality and Difference Emma Rudd

Townsend's `Deprivation Index'
Townsend suggested that the relative poverty line can be measured in a completely objective
way. In order to estimate the amount of poverty in Britain, Townsend (1979) conducted a massive
survey of 2000 households which provided him with data on household…

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Social Inequality and Difference Emma Rudd

In order to find out what is socially acceptable, Mack and Lansley surveyed a sample of just under
12000 people. Data was gathered on their lifestyles, incomes and possessions. Also, the sample
were presented with a list of 35 items and asked whether they…

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Social Inequality and Difference Emma Rudd

The social exclusion approach differs from the traditional poverty perspective in the following
It is Multidimensional
It recognises that poverty or deprivation has many dimensions and takes many different
forms. For example people can be excluded from the labour market (unemployment),
from services…

Page 6

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Social Inequality and Difference Emma Rudd

while social exclusion is a much broader and more complex matter of social
Cause and Effect?
It seems to imply that social exclusion is the main cause of poverty. This may well be the
case. For example racial discrimination may create higher unemployment,…


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