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In general, the higher a person's social class of origin ­ the higher their educational
qualifications. This has been shown time and time again over the past 50 years by
sociological researchers and government statistics.

Social class is the most important in educational attainment. Its…

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more interest than working class parents. They were more likely to visit the school and to
encourage their children to stay on beyond the minimum school leaving age.


Differences in social class subcultures ­ the norms, values and attitudes typical of each
class ­ were often seen as…

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The American psychologist Carl Bereiter argues that the speech patterns of many low
income children are inadequate to meet the demands of the education system. As a result,
they directly contribute to educational failure. This view has been rejected by American
linguist William Labov (1973). He examined the speech patterns…

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The French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu (1977) starts from the idea that there is a dominant
culture in society. The higher people's position in the class system, the greater the amount
of dominant culture they are likely to have. Children born into the middle and upper classes
have a builtin advantage.…

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secondary school is important. It can make a difference to students' examination results
and their chances of climbing the educational ladder.

Stephen J. Ball (2003) argues that middle class has advantage. They have the knowledge
and skills to make the most of the opportunities on offer. Compare to the working…

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Most teachers prefer to teach higher ability groups. The conduct of pupils in higher groups
is likely to be better than of those in lower groups. These in lower groups tend to develop
an antischool subculture in which breaking school rules is highly regarded by some pupils.
Teachers spend more…

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Other researchers see class differences in attainment resulting from a combination of what
happens inside and outside the school.

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