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Psychology social and
AS…read more

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When asked to describe a study ...
Making things easier...
E.g. Describe Hofling et al's (1966) study of obedience in a hospital setting.
First write the aim (1-2 sentences) E.g. the aim of the study was to see if whether nurses
would comply with an instruction which would involve them having to infringe both hospital
regulations & medical ethics
Then make 6 points...E.g. The label indicated that the normal dose is 5mg with a maximum &
The capsules were, in fact placebos (consisting of glucose). But the containers were labelled `
5mg capsules of Astroten daily dose of 10mg etc.
3 pieces of the results. E.g.21 out of 22 nurses obeyed without hesitation
And a conclusion. E.g. nurses believed that they would NOT obey a doctor unquestioningly if
they were ordered to do something that breached regulations and endangered patients,
however it appeared that in fact they did just that!…read more

Slide 3

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Trace Decay
Learning causes a physical change in the neural network of the memory system.
A memory is created known as an activated neural path or engram...
This is a neural path that gives the memory a structural quality which must be reinforced to strengthen
Without this rehearsal it will weaken or decay causing forgetting.
Forgetting is thus caused through disuse and the natural passage of time and once decayed, a memory is
lost forever. ­no cue can trigger any recall. AGAIN!
A nice way to put remember the basic structure of the trace decay theory is to picture it as a snail.
When a sail moves it leaves a trail behind, however if the snail doesn't go back over the trail it had
previously left, this will fade and eventually completely disappear .…read more

Slide 4

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You have got to know it. Don't repress the test!
This deals with us pushing unpleasant memories to the back of our minds
This is often done to protect ourselves from having to relive
these negative emotions
For example we may not want to think about a car accidents we were involved in, so instead we force
ourselves to try and forget about it
Freud suggested repressed memories remain active in the mind although we are not consciously aware
of them. And in fact they will remain there unless we choose to deal with it. Bit by bit...…read more

Slide 5

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Can you identify the studies for
cognitive approach?
List of all the studies shown below...
Craik and Tulving (1975)
Godden and Baddeley / deep sea divers
Peterson and Peterson (1959)
Ramponi et al (2004)/ age and levels of processing
Loftus and Palmer (1974) / smashed bumped
Loftus and Zanni (1975) / Did you see the broken headlight
Tulving and Pearlstone (1966) / category headings at recall
Bartlett (1932) / War of the ghosts
Aggleton and Waskett / smelly museum…read more

Slide 6

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Describing the findings of the study
you have identified...
Godden and Baddeley (1975)
Recall was about 50% higher than when it took place in the same environment as learning.
Mean number of words recalled in the dry land learning and recall condition was 13.5 and 11.4 for
underwater learning and recall
This contrasted with 8.4 mean recall in the underwater learning and dry land recall and 8.6 for dry land
learning and underwater recall
The study thus demonstrates how the environment can act as contextual cue that helps recall and prevent
forgetting…read more

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