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Tolerance- Is the ability to withstand fluctuations in biotic and abiotic environmental factors.
Biodiversity gives the ecosystem more tolerance.

Succession- orderly, natural changes that take place in an ecosystem over time

Primary succession Is the colonisation of new sites by communities
of organisms
Secondary succession Is the sequence of…

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Competitionis often considered to be the most important biotic factor controlling population

Competition between organisms may be for a number of different factors, including food, light,
territory or reproductive partners.

Intraspecific competition:

This is competition for a resource between individuals from the same population. It causes the

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Energy transfer
Only 1%-3% of the Sun's radiation (solar/ Light energy) reaches the plant
Over 90% of the Sun's energy is reflected back into space by clouds and dust, or is
absorbed by the atmosphere
Not all wavelengths of light can be absorbed and used for photosynthesis
Light may not…

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Decomposers: These organisms form the end point of every food chain. They are bacteria or fungi
that obtain their energy by breaking down dead organisms from the other trophic levels.

Each description of a trophic level will describe an organism's role in the ecosystem. Organisms
may occupy more than one…


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