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NATURE OF SCHIZOPHRENIA
· It is the profound disruption of cognition
and emotion that affects language,
perception ands sense of self.
· Association with violence is largely a media
invention.
· Around 8% of patients diagnosed with
schizophrenia commit a serious act of
violence.…read more

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CHARACTERISTICS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA
Positive Symptoms Negative symptoms
· Delusions · Loss of normal
· Hallucinations functions
· Experiences of · Alogia
control · Avolition
· Disorganised speech
and thinking
· Grossly
disorganised or
catatonic behaviour…read more

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VALIDITY
· There are questions about what
schizophrenia really is.
· First rank symptoms distinguish
schizophrenia from other disorders, but
some of these are also found in other
disorders such as DID.
· Little evidence of shared prognosis in
schizophrenia, therefore there is low
predictive validity.…read more

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TO BE DIAGNOSED WITH
SCHIZOPHRENIA YOU MUST:
· Have two or more characteristic symptoms
· Social and/or occupational dysfunction
· Duration of at least six months
· Exclusion of mood disorders
· Exclusion of organic cause…read more

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RELIABILITY
· Psychiatrists cannot agree on the same
diagnosis.
· DSM III and later versions claim increased
reliability of diagnosis.
· Whaley ­ Inter-rater reliability as low as 11.
· Klosterkotter ­ Positive symptoms more
useful for diagnosis than negative
symptoms.
· Mojtabi & Nicholson ­ Low inter-rater
reliability of bizarre versus non-bizarre
symptoms.
· Problem highlighted in Rosenhan's study
`On being sane in insane places.'…read more

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