Rome notes on all topics

Notes on the whole gcse topic of rome

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Gods, temples and Sacrifice
State Gods and Goddesses:
o Jupiter: King Of The Gods
o Juno: Queen Of The Gods
o Pluto (Hades): God Of Death/ The Underworld
o Ceres: Earth Goddess
o Neptune: God Of The Sea
o Apollo: God Of The Sun
o Diana: Goddess Of Moon
o Minerva: Goddess Of Wisdom
o Venus: Goddess Of Love
o Mercury: Messenger
Lares and Penates:
Lares and Penates were groups of deities who protected the family and the Roman state. They were
often worshiped together at household shrines. Lares guarded homes, crossroads, and the city. Every
Roman family had its own guardian, known as the Larfamiliaris, to protect the household and ensure that
the family line did not die out.
Believed to be the home of the gods and had a cult statue in the cellar of whoever it was dedicated to.
No worship took place inside and there was an altar behind the statue to leave gifts or burn incense.
Vestal Virgins:
Vestal Virgins were among the most important people in Rome and consisted of six priestesses of the
goddess Vesta who tended to the fire in her temple as Romans believed it was a terrible omen for the
city if this fire ever went out. She was expected to serve for 30 years: 10 learning, 10 performing and 10
training another. Her key duties were to: guard the sacred flame, attend important state sacrifices and
act as guardians to important documents. Privileges included: seats of honour at the games, freedom to
own property, make wills and vote. However if the flame went out they were whipped and if they had sex
they were buried alive whilst the partner was publically whipped to death.
Votive offerings were left in the temple. For example men retiring from their trade might leave the
tools that they had worked with as a way of thanking the gods for their support during their working
Blood Sacrifice: White animals went to Juno and Jupiter and black to the god or souls of the
underworld. It was a good omen if the animals went willingly. On the day the animals would have
ribbons tied on their horns and tail and music (flute) would be played to drown out the noise. The
priest would pour wine over its head to make it nod and the cultarious would kill the animal after
passing the knife down the back. After the death the entrails were inspected by the haurspex to
ensure they were clean.
Family: Life in the home
Responsible for teaching younger males academics, trades and how to act in society. They owned all
the families property and could exile any member of the family. As well as beating them or selling them
into slavery. They had a duty to honour the gods.

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Roman women usually married in their early teenage years, whilst men waited until they were in their
midtwenties. As a result, the materfamilias was usually much younger than her husband. As was
common in Roman society, while men had the formal power, women exerted influence behind the
scenes. It was accepted that the materfamilias was in charge of managing the household. In the upper
classes, she was also expected to assist her husband's career by behaving with modesty, grace and
dignity.…read more

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The Awning:
The Coliseum of Rome could shelter spectators and participants with an immense awning on sunny
summer days. The huge awning covered the top of the Coliseum. Some experts believe that the awning
may have been a single massive piece. When needed, it was first spread out on the Coliseum of Rome's
floor and lower seats. It was then slowly hoisted to the top and secured to the vertical flag poles.…read more

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Gladiatorial shows were political and the dramatic performance took place, not only in the arena, but
between different sections of the audience. At least one emperor ordered his guards to toss
unsuspecting spectators into the arena, for various reasons. The victim may have previously angered
the emperor. Or, the victim may have been a complete stranger but the emperor disliked the way he was
behaving in the Coliseum of Rome.…read more

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The days line up:
The day would begin with an entry parade (pompa) led by the editor of the games, behind him would be
the charioteers and their horses along with musicians and soldiers. The races would follow each
consisted of seven laps of the track anti clockwise and there were normally 24 races a day with each
race lasting about ten to fifteen minutes.…read more


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