studies on domestic labour

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Man ­Yee Kan (2001): income from employment, age and Ferri & Smith (1996): found increased employment of women has had little
education affected degree of housework women did whereby impact on domestic DOL. Sample of 1,589 33 year old fathers and mothers,
better paid, younger, better educated women did less housework. still found father took main responsibility for childcare in fewer than 4% of
Every £10,000 increase in annual income reduces her weekly families.
housework time by two hours.
Gershuny (1994): women who didn't work/ worked part time did Duncombe & Marsden (1995): argue that women are expected to not only do
83% of housework compared to 73% if they worked full time. a double shift of housework and paid work but a triple shift that includes
Also, longer wife had been in paid work, more likely her husband emotion work. They found that women felt male partners were lacking in
was to do housework. Couples whose parents had an equal `emotional participation' to both them and their children and this had
relationship were more likely to share housework equally negative consequences for their mental/ physical health.
Lader et al (2006) found that women in paid work spent 21 hours Morris (1990) found that even in couples where husbands had become
a week on housework vs. 12 hours spent by men on the same. unemployed and therefore lost their masculine role, they still saw domestic
Overall, found that 92% of women do some housework per day, work as `women's work' and therefore to be avoided to prevent emasculation
compared to 77% of men.
even further.
Sclater (2001) found that household technologies advertised as Bernard's (1982) study of marriage found that the men in her study were very
making life easier for women have actually increased the burden satisfied in their relationship, more so than their wives, many of whom
as they have raised standards of cleanliness and increased time expressed emotional loneliness and moreover, these men had no idea their
spent on housework. wives were unhappy.
Burghes (1997) found that fathers were taking an increasingly Gray (2006) found that fathers emphasised the need to spend quality time
active role in the emotional development of their children with their children ­ to take them out, help with homework and talk to them.
In a society where men can no longer rely on jobs for their identity, they look
to their children and fatherhood more to provide them with this.
Although, Gray also noted that although many fathers wanted to spend more
time with their children, long work hours often prevented this.


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