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Rivers

Features of a drainage basin/catchment




Drainage basin/catchment ­ an area of land which is drained by a river and its tributaries.
Watershed- the boundary of the drainage basin and is usually found in areas of high relief
Source- the starting point of the river (furthest from mouth)
Mouth- is…

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Faulting in rocks may cause water to move from one drainage basin to another- a natural
environment.

Water may be piped from one river into another to provide water for human use. The Liverpool
Metropolitan area receives 380 million litres of water per day from the river Dee catchment. This…

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Water percolating deep into underground stores where it is effectively lost from the
system.

3. Stores- places where water is held
Interception by trees- storage on the leaves of trees.
Surface storage- water stored on the surface of the land, lakes/ puddles/ snow/
glaciers.
Soil moisture storage- water stored in…

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River profiles
The long profile



This is a graph drawn along the course of a river from source to mouth.

The profile is generally concave with a steep upper reach and a gentler lower reach.




River processes (erosion, transportation & deposition) are related to the long profile because every
river…

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Interception

Water rarely lands directly on bare surfaces- usually it strikes vegetation first and a significant
amount of water can be stored this way. The amount of water depends on several factors:

Precipitation type; snow, rain, hail
Precipitation intensity
Precipitation duration
Nature of vegetation
Time of the year
Agricultural use…

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The passing of the warm front of a depression will give a longer period of more steady rain which is
more widespread.

The sun's energy

This provides the heat for evaporation and transpiration to take place.

Interbasin transfers

Water can be passed naturally or artificially between basins.

This should be…

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Geology
Land use
Local climate`

Water is reaching the sae (notice how the shape has changed). The sea has shrunk by 70% and this
has had a serious impact on the environment.

Soil storage

Soil storage is highly variable, being completely saturated after a period of heavy rainfall but drying…

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Erosion
Transportation
Deposition

Erosion is the "wearing away of the banks and bed and the removal of the rock debris by the
river"

The ability of a river to erode is determined by the amount of energy it possesses.

The water has potential energy- created due to the drop in…

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The material carried by a river can contribute to the wearing away of its banks and, to a lesser extent
and mainly in the upper course, its bed.

There are four main processes of erosion.

Corrasion/abrasion

The river carries with it particles of sand and silt and moves pebbles and…

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Transport
River energy not used for erosion or not lost through friction can be used to transport the river load.
A river obtains its load from 2 main sources.

Material that has been washed, or has fallen, into the river from the valley sides
Material that had been eroded by…

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