Geography GCSE

These cards cover various topics in physical geography , in the unit of the Restless Earth.

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Spheres and their jobs

Atmosphere: The layer of gases which make up the air around us

  • Oxygen, needed for animals to breathe
  • Carbon Dioxide for plant growth
  • The greenhouse effect to keep the planet warm.

Hydrosphere: The layer of water-seas, rivers, lakes, groundwater and ice-on the Earth's crust.

  • Water for animal and plant life
  • Water cycle which moves water around the planet.

Biosphere: The very thin layer of living things on the crust.

  • Plants and animals provide us with food
  • Many living things can also be used to make medicines and as fuel.

Geosphere: The rocks of the Earth's crust, and deeper into the Earth towards the core.

  • The Earth's core makes a magnetic field protecting us from space radiation
  • We use rocks, minerals and fossil fuels as resources for fuel, building etc.

 

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Inside the Earth

All we know about the Earth's interior comes from direct and indirect evidence.

  • Direct evidence: from the Earth's surface
  • Indirect evidence: earthquakes, material from space

+ the lithosphere: is the uppermost layer of the Earth. It is cool and brittle. It includes the very top of the mantle and above this the crust.

Lithosphere => tectonic plates (move on the astenosphere: partly molten partly solid, top of the mantle)

  • Continental crust: forms the land, granite (low density igneous rock), 30-50 km thick
  • Oceanic crust: under oceans, 6-8 km thick, basalt ( denser igneous rock)

Earthquakes=> wavew tell us about the physical state of the Earth. They speed up, change direction when they meet a new layer.

Core is thought to be metal( nickel) because of METEORITES.

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