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The drainage basin
Hydrological cycle:
The water balance
Factors affecting river discharge
The storm hydrograph
The long profile
Types of erosion, transportation and deposition
Types of load
The Hjulstrom curve
Valley profiles­long profile and changing cross profile downstream, graded profile
Potential and kinetic energy.
Changing channel characteristics ­ cross profile, wetted perimeter, hydraulic radius,
roughness, efficiency, and links to velocity and discharge.
Landforms of fluvial erosion and deposition ­ potholes, rapids, waterfalls, gorges,
meanders, braiding, levees, flood plains and deltas.
Process and impact of rejuvenation ­ knick points, waterfalls, river terraces and incised
Magnitude-frequency analysis of flood risk.
Physical and human causes of flooding - two case studies of recent flooding events.
Impact of flooding ­ two case studies
Flood management strategies ­ to include hard engineering ­ dams, straightening,
building up of levees, diversion spillways, and soft engineering ­ forecasts and warnings.
Land use management on floodplain, wetland and river bank conservation and river
restoration.…read more

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Drainage Basins
Water enters and continually cycles around the earth
through the global hydrological cycle, it is a closed
system with no inputs or outputs.
There are also local hydrological cycles e.g. drainage
A rivers drainage basin is the area surrounding the
river where the rain falling on the land flows into that
The boundary of the drainage basin is the watershed-
any precipitation falling beyond the watershed enters
a different basin.
Drainage basins are open systems with inputs and
Water come into the system as precipitation and…read more

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Hydrological Cycle…read more

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The Water Balance
P=E+Q+/- Changes in Storage
P = Precipitation
E = Evapotranspiration
Q = Run off…read more

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The Water Balance:
Water balance is worked out from inputs and outputs
and affects how much water is stored in the basin.
The general water balance in the UK shows seasonal
In wet seasons, precipitation exceeds evapotranspiration
creating water surplus.
The ground stores fill with water so there's more surface
runoff and higher discharge- river levels rise.
In drier seasons, precipitation is lower than
evapotranspiration. Ground stores are exhausted as some
water is used and flows into the river channel but isn't
replaced by precipitation.
At the end of a dry season there's a deficit of water in
the ground. the ground stores are recharged in the next
wet season.…read more

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