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Revision : Validity

Reliability Consistency of results
Or stability of measurement.

Validity Extent to which a test measures what it intends to measure.
Extent to which a study supports the intended conclusion drawn from the

The ability of the study to test
the hypothesis that it was…

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When the results can be generalised to
other groups of people. (other

When the results can be generalised to
situations outside the research setting.

When the results can be generalised to
other time periods.

Threats to internal validity

(1) Investigator effects
Examples : a. Observer bias Occurs when…

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Egs. of confounding variables in Participant variables
Independent measures design is Order effects (practice and fatigue effects)
Repeated measures design is

b. Sampling bias
c. Unreliable measures

Improving validity
Controlling extraneous variables can reduce confounding of results by using (1)
reliable measures (2) using counterbalancing in repeated measures design…

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Meta analysis Comparing the findings from other studies
that have investigated the same hypothesis.

Predictive validity Comparing the results of a test with the
results of future related tests e.g., do
GCSEs predict Degree Class?


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