3 Pages on Validity (Revision Help!)

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  • Created on: 20-02-11 15:02
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Revision : Validity
Reliability Consistency of results
Or stability of measurement.
Validity Extent to which a test measures what it intends to measure.
Extent to which a study supports the intended conclusion drawn from the
The ability of the study to test
the hypothesis that it was
designed to test.
Are we measuring the
effects of the IV on the DV?
Does a test measure what it
originally intended to
The extent to which the results can be
generalised outside of the study
Whether the results
are valid beyond the experimental
Types of validity

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When the results can be generalised to
other groups of people. (other
When the results can be generalised to
situations outside the research setting.
When the results can be generalised to
other time periods.
Threats to internal validity
(1) Investigator effects
Examples : a. Observer bias Occurs when researchers observe something
from their own point of view, rather than
b. Researchers' expectations
(2) Participant effects
Examples: a. Social desirability bias Tendency to give socially desirable responses
to selfreport measures.
b.…read more

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Egs. of confounding variables in Participant variables
Independent measures design is Order effects (practice and fatigue effects)
Repeated measures design is
b. Sampling bias
c. Unreliable measures
Improving validity
Controlling extraneous variables can reduce confounding of results by using (1)
reliable measures (2) using counterbalancing in repeated measures design (3)
match participants in independent groups designs, (4) ensure anonymity to reduce
`social desirability bias' and `evaluation apprehension' (5) include noncritical
trials/tasks to reduce demand characteristics and (6) use blinding to reduce
researcher expectations.…read more

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Meta analysis Comparing the findings from other studies
that have investigated the same hypothesis.
Predictive validity Comparing the results of a test with the
results of future related tests e.g.…read more


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