research methods

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Refers to the extent to which any variable is held constant
Independent variable ­ the thing that you change
Dependent variable ­ the thing that you measure
Extraneous variable ­ anything that may affect the independent variable
The experimenter seeks to control all possible extraneous variables
Mundane realism ­ how a study mirrors the real world
Internal validity
What goes on inside the study
Whether the IV produced the change in the DV
Whether the researcher tested what they intended to
Whether the study possessed or lacked mundane realism
External validity
Is affected by internal validity
The extent to which research can be generalised to:
Different places or settings
Different people or populations
Different times

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Ethical Issues
Informed Consent Participants have the right to be given information
concerning the nature and purpose of the research and their role in it, in order
that they can make an informed decision on whether they would like to
participate in the study or not.
Deception When a participant is not told the true aims of the study and so
the participant cannot give truly informed consent.…read more

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Experiments and Hypothesis
Directional ­ states the direction of the predicted difference between two
Nondirectional ­ predicts only that there will be a difference between two
condition, doesn't state the direction
Hypotheses must be operationalised ­ specify a set of behaviours that
can be measured or manipulated
Pilot study ­ a small trial run to test any aspects of the design
Confederate ­ an actor, not a real participant in the study
Experimental design
Independent measures ­ each participant will be allocated to one…read more


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