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CULTURAL DEFENCE: BRUCE
· Religion offers support and a sense of cultural identity in a
uncertain or hostile environment
· Bird: religion among minorities can be a basic for community
solidarity, a means of preserving culture and a way of coping with
oppression
CULTURAL TRANSITION:
HERBERG
· Religion can help to ease the transition into a new culture by
providing support and sense of community
· Ken Pryce: Study of an African Caribbean community in Bristol,
he found that `Pentecostalism' provided migrants with values
appropriate to the new world in which they found themselves…read more

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REASONS FOR ETHNIC
DIFFERENCES
· Weber: Immigrants originated from areas with high levels of
religiosity. Many were poor areas so religion offered compensation
· Durkheim: Religion helps to build new communities and social
stability
· Ramji: Religion offers status they cannot achieve in a racist society…read more

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AGE AND RELIGIOUS
PARTICIPATION
· The general pattern is; the older the person the more likely they
are to attend church
· The under 15s: More likely to be part to go by their parents
· The over 65s: More likely to be sick and disabled so unlikely to
attend. Higher death rates also make this a smaller group, which
reduces the number `available' to attend
Age 1979 (in 2005 (in thousands)
thousands)
Under 15 4,416 624
15 ­ 19 490 153
20 ­ 29 598 231
30 ­ 44 870 496
45 ­ 65 1,088 907
65 and 979 755
over…read more

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REASONS FOR AGE DIFFERENCES
· Voas & Crockett, The ageing effect: View that people turn to
religion as they get older. As we approach death, we `naturally'
become more concerned about spiritual matters and the afterlife
· Voas & Crockett, The generation effect: View that as society
become more secular, each generation is less religious than the
next
· Gill: Children are no longer receiving a religious socialisation
· Brierley: 87% of 10-14year old said they found church boring
· Lynch: Young people are turning away from conventional
religions and towards sects
· Roof: The expansion of the spiritual market means young people
have more access to different types of religious and spirituality
beliefs…read more

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REASONS FOR AGE
DIFFERENCES: BRUCE
· Traditionally, the church of England was able to recruit young
people through education
· Sunday school attendance was compulsory so children were
socialized into religious beliefs
· As Society becomes more secular, Sunday school was no longer
compulsory
· Christian Research: A century ago, half of children attended
Sunday school, but by 2000 this had decreased to 1 in 25
· Bruce predicts that by 2016, there will be few or none Sunday
schools left
A02:
· Some Muslim children attend Madrassas, the Sunday school
equivalent
· Faith schools still exists in Britain BUT they have to follow the
national curriculum…read more

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