Random Product Autopsy

My autopsy's of an adjustable spanner, staedtler pencil, and jiffy bag put together. Includes ACCESSFM of products with manufacturing steps.

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  • Created by: hgrattan
  • Created on: 07-12-15 21:47
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Materials &
Most pencil cores are made of graphite mixed with a clay binder (which leaves grey or black marks
that can be easily erased). The most common type of pencil casing is of thin wood, hexagonal in
section and permanently bonded to the core. To use the pencil, the casing must be carved or
peeled off to expose the working end of the core as a sharp point.
Bonding between layers is via weak van der Waals bonds, which allows layers of graphite to be
easily separated, or to slide past each other. This is suitable to use for these pencils as it allows a
mark to be made with little pressure used. Graphite can be recycled so it is sustainable, however it
is very difficult to do so as it requires synthetic graphite electrodes. It is bonded with clay as the
ratio between the two materials adjusts the core's hardness (identified by the HB 2B letters on the
pencil). These materials also allow the markings to be rubbed out if a mistake is made, but it is
also water resistant so if paper it is used on gets wet, it will remain. Unlike pens, it can also be
used on paper with has been laminated without being accidentally wiped off.
Thin wood, incense cedar (Calocedrus decurrens), is used for the exterior because it is soft and
tends to sharpen easily without forming splinters. It is a softwood so it is a sustainable material to
use as they are fast growing. It is also cheaper than hardwoods such as mahogany, and although it
is strong and durable, it is easily able to be sharpened to allow a precise line to be made with the
1. Before the two inner substances are mixed, they are separately cleaned and
dried to make a large blocks.
2. Once it has fully dried, the graphite and the clay squares are mixed together
using water.
3. The amount of clay content added to the graphite depends on the
intended pencil hardness and the amount of time spent on grinding the mixture
determines the quality of the lead.
4. The mixture is then shaped into long strings, straightened, dried, cut, and then tempered
in a kiln.
5. The resulting strings are dipped in oil or molten wax, which seeps into the tiny holes of the
material and allows for the smooth writing ability of the pencil.
6. A wooden plank (incense cedar) with several long parallel grooves is cut, and the
graphite/clay strings are inserted into the grooves.
7. Another grooved plank is glued with adhesive on top, and the whole assembly is then cut
into individual pencils and shaped/sanded into the hexagonal shape, which are then
varnished or painted.
8. It can be coated in lacquer to make it smooth and laminated (which gives it protection),
and the bottom is dipped into red lacquer to follow its iconic design.
This manufacture is suitable because it lets the product withstand a high amount of pressure
so they don't break in day to day use ­ they are durable.

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Other features:
Graphite pencils are used for both writing and drawing and result in durable markings:
though writing is easily removable with an eraser, it is otherwise resistant to moisture,
most chemicals, ultraviolet radiation, and natural aging.
The materials allow this product to be mass produced because they are low cost and
therefore can be sold at a cheaper price.…read more

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A compressive stroke squeezes the blank into the die to form the part until it is full.
3. Once the die halves have separated the part can be ejected using ejector pins.
4. The waste material (flash) is removed and the handle is sand blasted.
Die forging is a good manufacture method because the grain flow follows the shape of the
spanner which gives it extra strength. This method ensures the spanner can withstand intense
pressure and durability so that it does not wear away.…read more

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The shape of the spanner head is specifically designed to fit the cap of the nuts or bolts. It
has also been filed down with a file so that it does hurt your hand in use and so that the
corners and edges are a smooth form. This also helps it to ergonomically fit a person's
hand as the rounded sides fit nicely.
Jiffy bags are padded envelopes used for packaging
products for shipment.…read more

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Drying section: where the pressed sheet passes around a series of steam heated drying
cylinders. Drying removes the water content down to a level of 6%.
5. The paper may then undergo sizing
to alter its physical properties for use in various
Paper is a lightweight resource, and so is easily handled and transported. It can be made of
recycled paper which can then go on to be recycled again, so using this paper is sustainable .…read more

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The three materials are put together. First, the heavy paper is cut to size and printed on. Then the
bubble wrap layer is cut and added to the heavy paper using adhesive. Then PSA's are added in a
strip of one arm of the envelope near the opening. Finally, the envelope is folded together and
Other features:
The envelope is recyclable making it a sustainable product, and
can also be reused if more adhesive is added because it is very
durable.…read more


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