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Ways of Breaking Bonds
All reactions involve breaking and making of bonds.
In a covalent bond, the electrons are shared between
two atoms.
When the bond breaks, these electrons get rapidly
redistributed between the atoms.
Bond fission can happen in two ways
1) Homolytic fission
2) Heterolytic fission…read more

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Heterolytic Fission
In heterolytic or unsymmetrical cleavage, the bond
breaks in such a fashion that the shared pair of electrons
remains with one of the fragments.
The atom which has got the electrons become
negatively charged due to an extra electron. So it
becomes an anion.
The other atom becomes a cation due to loss of
electron and it attains a positive charge.
Heterolytic fission is common when the bond is polar.…read more

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Homolytic fission
If a covalent bond breaks in such a way that each atom
takes away one electron of the shared pair, it is called
homolytic or symmetrical fission.
The neutral chemical species which contain an odd or
unpaired electron and which are produced by homolytic
fission of covalent bonds are called free radicals.
Homolytic fission usually occurs in non-polar bonds
and is favored by high temperature or light (uv) and
when the reaction is taking place in gas phase.…read more

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For the following bond cleavages, use curved-arrows to
show the electron flow and classify each as homolysis
or heterolysis.
c)…read more

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More about radicals
A free radical is any atom or group of atoms having an odd
or unpaired electron.
Presence of unpaired electron makes it reactive.
Some radicals have only one odd electron eg. Chlorine
Biradicals have more than one odd electron eg. Oxygen
Oxygen atom (O)
Dioxygen Molecule (O2)…read more

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