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Sensation
Detecting sensory information
through sense organs (Cox, 2002)…read more

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GIBSON'S BOTTOM UP/DIRECT THEORY OF
PERCEPTION
Based on four assumptions:
1. The pattern of light reaching the eye can be
thought of as an optic array (unambiguous
information about the layout of objects in space)
which contains all the info necessary for
perception.
2. Important info provided by the movement of the
observer
3. The optic array contains information that
remains constant as the observer moves
4. This variant information leads directly to
perception.
The optic array contains information which comes in
a number of forms:…read more

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THE OPTIC FLOW
This is the change in the patterns of light and shade
with movement. It gives us information for the
direction a object is moving in, the distance of the
object and the speed of its movement.
WEST (1993): filmed the movements of black-clad
animals with lights on their joints and found that
the species of animal was recognisable to an
observer. This demonstrates how strong a source
of information movement is in determining optic
flow patterns and shows that there is enough
sensory info for perception to occur correctly.…read more

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TEXTURE GRADIENT
The further away something is, the finer the
texture will appear. So lines that are far
away will appear to be closer together then
lines that are near to us.
Fritchel (2006) presented participants with a
film of a car driving through scenery.
Evidence was found that infants as young as
4 months of age could perceive by using
texture gradient, implying that this ability
may be innate.…read more

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HORIZON RATIO
The extent of an object that is above the horizon,
divided by the extent of the object that is below
the horizon. This ratio stays the same regardless
of how far away from the object you are.
Creem (2003) found that restricting participants
viewing conditions did not significantly affect their
ability to judge distances using horizon ratio
information, suggesting that this form of invariant
information is a powerful tool in establishing
direct perception.…read more

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