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Psychology ­ Paper 2

Criminal Behaviour:
Key Concepts:

Crime: Is any behaviour that breaks the law, there are variations between countries.

Measures of Crime: Statistics count the number of criminal acts, not the number of
criminals, people may not be aware they have been a victim or may not want…

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for aggressive psychopaths. This means that their emotions are slower
and they have no real emotions apart from hurting others.
There are also facial features associated with criminals.
o Asymmetrical face
o Low and sloping forehead
o Glinting or glassy eyes
o High cheekbones
o Large, protruding, handle shaped ears…

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Bandura's bobo doll experiment supports this.

Core Study:

Mednick et al.

One way of investigating the nature-nurture debate is to study people who have
been adopted. In theory, if a behaviour is more to do with nature, then an
adopted person's behaviour should be more similar to their biological parents'…

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Rehabilitation: Hope people in prison cope with changes and help them psychologically
they learn life and work related skills allowing them to return to society without
resorting to crime.

Use of Prisons: Token economy, reward behaviour and punish bad behaviour

Key Concepts:

Sensation- The process of collecting data from…

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Relative Size- Objects that are bigger we perceive as being closer.
Superimposition- If an object overlaps another it is seen as being closer.
Texture Gradient- We can see the texture of objects closer to us but not those
of one's further away.

Core Theory:

Constructivist Theory

Suggests that our perception…

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The Nativist theory is the opposite- believes that in instinct and biology play an
important role in perception.
Perception is a result of bottom-up processes instead of top-down processes-
It suggests that perception is dominated by what we see through our eyes
rather than what we expect to see.

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distance relied on experience suggests that the constructivist theory is a more reliable
theory of perception.


Field experiment: higher ecological validity.
Easy to replicate.
Small sample size so less generalisable.
Only male college students.
Only American.
Field experiments so low control.
Possibility of demand characteristics.

Application of Research:


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Cognitive Development:
Key Concepts:

Invariant Stages: Happens in a fixed order and everyone goes through them in the
same stages.

Universal Stages: These stages apply to different ages of all children everywhere.

Sensori-motor Stage:

Pre-operational Stage:

Concrete operational Stage:

Formal operational Stage:

Core Theory:

Piaget's cognitive theory:

Piaget suggested that…

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From the evidence he developed the cognitive stages of development. In psychology a
stage means that:

1. Development follows a fixed (Invariant) order/pattern.
2. The pattern is true for everyone.
3. The behaviour in question gets better with each stage.

Piaget said that children were like `scientists' they explore from…

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At every new stage the mistakes of the previous stage are removed, so at this stage
the child overcomes egocentrism, drops animism & can think backwards. They also
develop new skills:-

Linguistic humour- Children start to understand & enjoy word games & double
Seriation- They develop the ability to…


fay bower


this is really good!

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