Psychodynamic, biological and learning approaches

a table of the differences and similarities of the psychodynamic, biological and learning approaches, giving a basic overview of each

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Psychodynamic Biological explanation Learning explanation
Children in phallic stage Gender determined Gender appropriate
of psychosexual before birth behaviours are modelled
development need Both parents contribute and imitated by children.
gratification from 50% of their genes Bandura (1961) found
opposite sex parent. If father passes on the X that children copy same
Manifests itself as chromosome the baby sex role models more
wanting to eliminate the will be female, if Y, the than opposite sex
same sex parent. baby will be male. models.
Same sex parent is "in If Y chromosome is Once gender
the way" and poses a present testosterone is appropriate behaviour is
threat to the child, released and male displayed it is reinforced
particularly the male characteristics develop by praise and attention.
who fears castration. This affects brain This is operant
resolved through hemisphere conditioning and
identification with the specialisation and encourages gender
same sex parent. hypothalamus action. appropriate behaviour
Child simulates same sex to be repeated.
parent in order to be
with opposite sex

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Feature Psychodynamic Biological Learning
Methodology Dream analysis, free Study of genes, DNA Experiments
association, case and hormones, PET Animal studies
studies scanning, MRI scanning,
Twin studies and
adoption studies,
lesion studies
Focus on nature Inherited focus on Genes and hormones- Born with blank slate-
unconscious and stage born with them ignores inherited
development (nature) (nature) factors
Focus on nurture Parents and society Experience can affect Parents, school,
give superego, morals, hormones etc, but society, peers, TV,
conscience and gender generally gender is other models- all…read more


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