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What you need to know:
O Describe and evaluate Freud's theory of
psychosexual development
O Describe two defence mechanisms, including
repression and one other such as denial,
regression or projection.
O Evaluate Freud's theory as an explanation of
gender development and behaviour.
O Describe and evaluate research methods,
including psychodynamic ones.…read more

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Defining the
psychodynamic approach
O The psychodynamic approach concerns the mind (psyche) and
energy (dynamic).
O The idea is that people have a certain amount of energy and if
much of that energy is needed to deal with the past then there
might not be enough left to move forward in life.
O It is about developing in a mentally healthy way and about
curing neuroses.
O The way to do this is by exposing unconscious wishes and
desires making them conscious.
O Neuroses are mental problems that can be understood by the
individual, as opposed to psychoses where the individual has
lost insight.
O Insight is important in understanding unconscious thoughts in
order to release them, so neuroses are treated, not psychoses.…read more

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Who was Freud?
O Sigmund Freud lived in Vienna, in `high'
society in Austria and treated people who
were often quite wealthy.
O He trained as a doctor and as a young man
was horrified at the lack of knowledge and
treatment for mentally ill people.
O He developed a theory focusing on helping
those who were mentally ill and put forward
a brave and perhaps outrageous explanation
of human development.…read more

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What were Freud's
O He believed that energy could be trapped in various
developmental stages over the first five years of life.
O Energy is an instinct and basic needs are hunger,
thirst, warmth and sex drive.
O In his society people were not hungry, thirsty or
longing for warmth so he focused on sex drive.
O He looked at an individuals need for pleasure and
thought this was linked to various erogenous zones.
Freud proposed the psychosexual stages in the first
five years and if a fixation is developed at one of
these stages, then energy is used up dealing with
that which can lead to adult mental health
problems.…read more

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What were Freud's
O Freud focused on neuroses which are mental problems that the
individual can be aware of (like phobias), rather than
psychoses, which are mental problems were the individual has
lost touch with reality (e.g. schizophrenia).
O Freud's cure was listening and analysing, helping the individual
to understand their fixations, he needed to focus on people
who could bring an understanding to their own symptoms.
O A main focus of Freud's theories was how far the unconscious is
the largest part of the mind and has great influence on the
individual. The individual is unaware they are fixated and does
not know that they experience the Oedipus complex.
O All of this material is held in our unconscious mind including
material that we cannot face such as trauma.…read more


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