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Population Change
Birth rate ­ the number of live babies born in a year for every 1000
people in the total population.

Death rate ­ the number of people in every 1000 who die each day.

Natural increase ­ the difference between the birth rate and death

Natural increase…

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Decreasing death rate ­

Increasing death rate ­

CASE STUDY ­ Poland has a low birth rate
o Poland has one of the lowest birth rates in Europe, of just 1.23.
o The country's population fell by half a million between 2000 and 2008. 4
million fewer Poles by 2030.…

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Demographic Transition
o Demographic transition models show population change over time - and also
show marked differences between LEDCs and MEDCs.
o At present the world's population is growing quickly, though this has not always
been the case.
o Until the 1800s the world's population grew slowly for thousands…

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· Birth rate is high due to no use of contraception, and the economy is based on
agriculture therefore, people have lots of children so that they could work on farms.
· Death rate falls due to improved healthcare.
· The life expectancy has increased. However, there is still more…

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Population Pyramids
Population structure means the 'make up' or composition of a population. Looking at
the population structure of a place shows how the population is divided up between
males and females of different age groups.
Population structure is usually shown using a population pyramid. A population
pyramid can be…

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There is a narrow base which means there is a high birth rate. There is a low life
expectancy as there is a short narrow top. There is a high death rate. A population
pyramid of a MIC/NIC, at the end of stage 2 of the DTM going into stage…

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%15 and under + %64 and over/ %between 15 and 64 x 100

CASE STUDY ­ Gambia a youthful population
o More than 50% of the population in Gambia is under 15.
o They are mainly Muslims (against contraception).
o A very high doctor to patient ratio (1: 14,536)


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CASE STUDY ­ UK an ageing population
As people live longer, the structure of a population changes.

Many MEDCs are now experiencing a significant increase in the number of elderly
people as a proportion of the population.

Why is there an ageing population?
o Higher life expectancy - advances in…

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o The amount of money spent on o Elderly people are able to volunteer
education might have to be cut down in charity shops as they have lots of
to finance the elderly free time
o High demand for specialist health care o Growth in the number of jobs in…

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o Bring in migrant workers. 2million migrant workers in Japan, 200,000 of which
are illegal.
Countries migrant workers may come from include, India and Mongolia.

Disadvantage 2 ­ Pensions
The state pension system has been the first to feel the effects of the ageing
population. To solve the problem the…


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