Population Change

Notes for Tomorrow's Geography for Edexcel GCSE Specification A.

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Population Change
Birth rate ­ the number of live babies born in a year for every 1000
people in the total population.
Death rate ­ the number of people in every 1000 who die each day.
Natural increase ­ the difference between the birth rate and death
Natural increase (%) = birth rate ­ death rate/10
o Natural decrease ­ when there are more deaths than births.
o Natural increase ­ when there are more births than deaths.
What changes have there been in population growth?
In 1800, the world's population was estimated at 1 billion.
Over the next 100 years, it grew to 1.7 billion.
In 2000, the world's population was estimated at 6 billion.
Over the past 200 years the population has grown by over 5 billion.
Reasons for recent changes in the birth and death rate -
Decreasing birth rate ­
Increasing birth rate

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Decreasing death rate ­
Increasing death rate ­
CASE STUDY ­ Poland has a low birth rate
o Poland has one of the lowest birth rates in Europe, of just 1.23.
o The country's population fell by half a million between 2000 and 2008. 4
million fewer Poles by 2030.
o More and more young people, especially women, are going to college and
university. They want a job and career first so they're not dependant on their
husbands.…read more

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Demographic Transition
o Demographic transition models show population change over time - and also
show marked differences between LEDCs and MEDCs.
o At present the world's population is growing quickly, though this has not always
been the case.
o Until the 1800s the world's population grew slowly for thousands of years.
o In 1820 the world's population reached one billion.
o In the early 1970s, the world's population reached three billion.…read more

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Birth rate is high due to no use of contraception, and the economy is based on
agriculture therefore, people have lots of children so that they could work on farms.
· Death rate falls due to improved healthcare.
· The life expectancy has increased. However, there is still more young people than
the elderly.
Stage Three (NICs)
· Birth rate is rapidly falling due to the use of contraception, the emancipation of
women and better education.…read more

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Population Pyramids
Population structure means the 'make up' or composition of a population. Looking at
the population structure of a place shows how the population is divided up between
males and females of different age groups.
Population structure is usually shown using a population pyramid. A population
pyramid can be drawn up for any area, from a whole continent or country to an
individual town, city or village.
There is a narrow base which means there is a low birth rate.…read more

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There is a narrow base which means there is a high birth rate. There is a low life
expectancy as there is a short narrow top. There is a high death rate. A population
pyramid of a MIC/NIC, at the end of stage 2 of the DTM going into stage 3.
There is a high birth rate as there is a wide base. A high death rate and low life
expectancy, as the bars are rapidly decreasing. A LIC in stage 2 of the DTM.…read more

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CASE STUDY ­ Gambia a youthful population
o More than 50% of the population in Gambia is under 15.
o They are mainly Muslims (against contraception).
o A very high doctor to patient ratio (1: 14,536)
Why is there a youthful population?
o Short life expectancy
o High infant mortality rate of 73 per 1000 people (so parents tend to have a lot of
children as many of them die in their first few years, however this is slowly
falling.…read more

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CASE STUDY ­ UK an ageing population
As people live longer, the structure of a population changes.
Many MEDCs are now experiencing a significant increase in the number of elderly
people as a proportion of the population.…read more

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The amount of money spent on o Elderly people are able to volunteer
education might have to be cut down in charity shops as they have lots of
to finance the elderly free time
o High demand for specialist health care o Growth in the number of jobs in
and hospital beds leisure industry
CASE STUDY ­ Japan an ageing population
Basic statistics about Japans population
o Japans total population peaked at 127.…read more

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Bring in migrant workers. 2million migrant workers in Japan, 200,000 of which
are illegal.
Countries migrant workers may come from include, India and Mongolia.
Disadvantage 2 ­ Pensions
The state pension system has been the first to feel the effects of the ageing
population.…read more


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