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Plant cells, like animal cells, possess
a plasma membrane within which
is contained a complex fluid called Plasma Membrane
the cytosol Cytosol
Cellulose Cell Wall
Unlike animal cells,
the outermost
boundary of the plant
cell is the cell wall
The cell wall is composed The cell walls of
principally of the adjacent plant cells
polysaccharide called are shown here
cellulose
Adjacent plant cells in a
tissue are held together
by a thin layer called the
middle lamella
The middle lamella is composed of "glue-like"
pectic substances…read more

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The cell wall is the outermost layer in plant cells composed mainly of cellulose. It
consists of fibres embedded in a matrix. Chains of the complex carbohydrate, cellulose,
group together to form the fibres. The matrix consists of pectins (e.g. calcium pectate) and
hemicelluloses
PROTOPLAST When a "young" plant cell is formed, it
is surrounded by a primary cell wall
composed largely of cellulose. The
cell wall is secreted by the protoplast
it encloses
This primary cell wall consists of
cellulose fibres arranged at random
simple pit
within the matrix such that the primary
wall is highly porous
CELL
B
The random arrangement of fibres creates an elastic wall
allowing for stretching as the young cell grows…read more

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As the plant cell grows, more cellulose fibres are secreted by the protoplast and
laid down on the inside of the primary wall forming a secondary wall
The cellulose fibres of the secondary
wall are closely packed and laid down
in an orderly way giving considerable
rigidity to the cell wall
simple pit
CELL
B
ELECTRON
MICROGRAPH
Unlike the cell membrane, the cell wall is porous and freely permeable
to water, ions, sugars and other essential nutrients…read more

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In many cases, where adjacent plant cells are held together in a tissue, there is
communication between the cells
Adjacent cells are interconnected by
fine strands of cytoplasm known as
plasmodesmata
simple pit
These strands of cytoplasm pass through
pores in the cell walls and the middle
CELL lamellae, thus forming minute but
B continuous cytoplasmic bridges between
one cell and the next
The cell wall provides mechanical support and protection
for the plant cell…read more

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In common with animal cells, typical plant cells also possess a nucleus, rough and
smooth endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, Golgi bodies and free ribosomes
Free ribosomes
Nucleus
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Smooth endoplasmic
reticulum
Mitochondrion
Golgi body
These are the sub-cellular organelles typically found in
EUKARYOTIC CELLS…read more

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