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All the victims dressed identically.
Victims all collapsed the same way
The models' behaviour was timed
It was the same journey each time so there was no stopping at stations.
All models were male
Female observers observed as `unobtrusively' as possible, trying to not
draw attention to themselves.
Low experimenter control so cannot be sure confounding variables are
High inter-rater reliability as there are two observers noting down
everything so there was no observer bias.
Changes to the Effect on Effect on Effect on
study Method Results Issues
Debrief the Would take longer, More qualitative More ethical as participants are
participants will get more results, quantitative informed afterwards they
afterwards comments about results shouldn't might have been stressing out
how they actually change much. because of the study.
Conduct less Take longer Results shouldn't More valid because participants
trials on one change much are less likely to have seen the
day study been conducted more than
Conduct Take longer Makes results more More valid because more
same number comparable, should behaviours will be observed.
of trials in get even results, More reliable because more trials
black/white anomalies have are conducted.
and less effect
Evaluation of study
High in ecological validity
Passengers were not aware that they were being observed so there
were no demand characteristics
There was no social desirability effect as passengers didn't know they
were being observed (if they knew about the study they might have
wanted to act helpful and will behave differently).
Experimenter's lack of control over the study. E.g. It was not possible to
control how many passengers boarded the train or how many.
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Participants were not aware that they were taking part, so had not
given their consent.
Participants could not withdraw from the study because the train
journey is continuous.
It was not possible to debrief participants after the study since some
participants went on to leave the train.
Participants may have been stressed out by the study which raises
ethical issues of protecting participants from physical or psychological