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Stars and space

The history of the universe:
The universe was once a hot ball of glowing matter that has expanded to be
cold and dark apart from the stars, the light we see from distant galaxies has
taken billions of years to reach us!
The universe expanded and became…

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rebound violently against the dense core of the star in what is called a
supernova, the supernova can be as bright as a whole galaxy and all elements
heavier than iron that we can find were once created by a supernova, a star with
a large mass which is extremely…

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* Put more turns in the coil or use more cells
* Put an iron rod through the coils (iron is a soft magnet)
No force will act on a conductor carrying an electric current in a magnetic field
if the conductor is not at right angles to the magnetic…

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ammeter pointer deflects as current is generated when the wire cuts across the
magnetic field, we can call this effect the dynamo effect, if we then turn are wire
into a coil the current gets bigger but it is etter to spin the magnet instead of the
coil it's just…

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When the magnet is at rest, there is no change in magnetic flux and no induced

When the North pole is moved away from the right end of the coil the current in
the coil reverses. The end of the coil nearest the magnet acts like a South pole…

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The transformer:
An alternating current across the primary coil produces a changing magnetic
field, the filed lines cut through the secondary coil and this induces an alternating
voltage in the secondary coil, the core is laminated for efficiency, it cuts out
induced currents in the iron layers, we don't use…

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Light and sound

We see in mirror due to the reflection of light, with a plane mirror the law of
reflection is simple the incident ray angle to the mirror will be equal to the
reflected way angle. Angle of incidence = angle of reflaction ( the angle between

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The rules for this are:
1) Light ray parallel to the axis is reflected through F
2) Light ray to the Centre of the mirror is reflected at an equal angle
3) Light ray through F reflects parallel to the axis

For an object that is between the focal point…

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The rules for this are:
1) A ray parallel to the axes reflects up then goes behind mirror to meet the
principle focus point
2) A ray will reflect at the axes (mirror centre) to meet the law of relection but the
virtual ray will form the `ray' behind the…

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If the object is between the focal point and the lens rules:
1) A ray parallel to the axes refracts through the `F' on the other side of the mirror
2) A line passes directly through the center of the lens
3) Draw in virtual rays to form the virtual,…


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