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Physics 2 Revision


Particle Relative Mass Relative Charge
Proton 1 +1
Neutron 1 0
Electron Very small -1

An atom has no overall electrical charge because there are equal amounts of
protons and electrons. However, they have equal but opposite charge.
Isotopes are atoms that have the same number…

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When a radioactive isotope decays, it forms a different atom with a
different number of protons.

Changing elements

When an atom emits alpha or beta radiation, its nucleus changes. It becomes
the nucleus of a different element. This is because the number of protons in
the nucleus determines which element…

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Isotopes are atoms with the same atomic number but different mass
Most of the mass of an atom found in the nucleus.
In the plum pudding model of the atom, the plums were electrons
The type of radiation used in Rutherford's scattering experiment was alpha


Attraction and…

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Many power stations burn fossil fuels such as coal and oil. Smoke is
produced when these fuels burn.
Smoke comprises tiny solid particles, such as unreacted carbon, which can
damage buildings and cause breathing difficulties.
To avoid this, the smoke is removed from waste gases before they pass out

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important for a circuit to work:
1. there must be a complete circuit
2. there must be no short circuits
To check for a complete circuit, follow a wire coming out of the battery
with your finger. You should be able to go out of the battery, through the

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No current can flow if the circuit is broken, for example, when a switch is

Measuring current:
current is measured in amperes
amperes is often abbreviated to amps or A
the current flowing through a component in a circuit is measured using an
the ammeter must be connected…

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When two or more components are connected in series, the same current
flows through each component.
When two or more components are connected in parallel, the total current
flowing through the circuit is shared between the components.

Resistance and resistors

An electric current flows when electrons move through a conductor.…

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A graph of current - vertical axis - against potential difference -
horizontal axis - shows you how the current flowing through a component
varies with the potential difference across it.

Resistor at constant temperature
The current flowing through a resistor at a constant temperature is
directly proportional to the…

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Thermistors are used as temperature sensors - for example, in fire alarms.
Their resistance decreases as the temperature increases:
1. At low temperatures, the resistance of a thermistor is high and
little current can flow through them.
2. At high temperatures, the resistance of a thermistor is low and

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Where does each wire go?
There is an easy way to remember
where to connect each wire.
Take the second letters of the words
blue, brown and striped.
This reminds you that when you look
into a plug from above:

blue goes left, brown goes right and
striped goes to…


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