Philosophy and Ethics Revision Notes

Hey guys, hope this helps. 
Here is my revision notes which i have put together through the edexcel textbook, Joe jenkins, Bowie, RS revision website and many more. Only covers the topics i am planing to do (utilitarianism, evil and suffering and the design argument and a little bit on situation ethics). Hope this helps you all :) good luck!! 

HideShow resource information
Preview of Philosophy and Ethics Revision Notes

First 11 words of the document:


Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Key Features
St. Thomas Aquinas
Immanuel Kant
William Paley
Richard Swinburne
F. R.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

The design argument is an a posteriori, analytical and inductive argument,
It suggests that the universe is the work of an intelligent designer (God.
The supporting evidence includes a sense of order and purpose in the way the universe works.
The universe works with beneficial order (Aquinas).
The workings of the universe are like those of a watch (Paley).
The universe works in a providential way (Swinburne).
Lack of proof is one criticism of this argument.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

It is an a posteriori argument (an argument based on the evidence of our observation of the world)
because it uses empirical evidence from our observation of the world. Which shows that aspects of
the universe seem to have been designed because they are perfectly adapted to fulfil their function.
The Design Argument suggests that such perfect adaption could not have come into existence by
chance. Instead they appear to be the work of an intelligent, personal designer, whom some people
call God.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

However this something does not have to be God, and how do we know that there is order in the
world? Or that if order is present that it could of occurred by chance?
The teleological argument is founded on Aquinas' fifth way. Aquinas stated
that everything is directed toward an end and have purpose, with this purpose
being directed by some external power.
Aquinas compares the idea to an archer shooting an arrow at a target.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

It has regularity and order
Therefore, it must have been designed.
Design Qua Purpose:
Due to the complexities of the watch there must be a "watchmaker". The watch is like the universe
too complex to have happened by chance.
Obvious that the eye was designed for the specific purpose to see. Thus
there is a designing creator God.
Design Qua Regularity:
Evidence for a creator in the regularity of the universe.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

The easiest and most simple explanation for the universe is that it has a cosmic designer
("Perspective of Probability")
F. R. Tennant (18661957):
Claims that:
The existence of an intelligent designer is found not just in the order of the universe, but in its
beauty nature, music, art etc.. This is the Aesthetic Principle (the beauty in the world is
proof of intelligent design).
The Universe is more than just orderly it possesses a natural beauty beyond that which is
necessary to live.…read more

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

This leads to Anthropomorphism (attributing human characteristics to concepts, or other
animals), where God's qualities and characteristics are identified with those of humans
If God is compared with a human designer then it serves only to limit his powers
If the universe is designed, then it is designed poorly (due to suffering earthquakes)
No supreme designer would have created a universe with so much suffering
"The world is very faulty and imperfect... it is the work only of some inferior deity".…read more

Page 10

Preview of page 10

Here's a taster:

Gods, or team of demons
7) Universe is unique, nothing to compare it to, to see if the world is ordered.
He argued that you cannot assume that B follows A. There could be order in the world but it should
not be assumed that it was put there by a divine intelligence.
Charles Darwin (18091882):
Created the theory of evolution, which offered an alternative explanation to the design argument.…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar Religious Studies resources:

See all Religious Studies resources »See all resources »