Philosophy and Ethics Revision Notes

Hey guys, hope this helps. 
Here is my revision notes which i have put together through the edexcel textbook, Joe jenkins, Bowie, RS revision website and many more. Only covers the topics i am planing to do (utilitarianism, evil and suffering and the design argument and a little bit on situation ethics). Hope this helps you all :) good luck!! 

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Key Features

St. Thomas Aquinas

Immanuel Kant

William Paley

Richard Swinburne

F. R. Tennant

John Polkinghorne

Stephen Hawking

David Hume

Charles Darwin

Richard Dawkins

Evil and Suffering

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The design argument is an a posteriori, analytical and inductive argument,
It suggests that the universe is the work of an intelligent designer (God.
The supporting evidence includes a sense of order and purpose in the way the universe works.
The universe works with beneficial order (Aquinas).
The workings…

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It is an a posteriori argument (an argument based on the evidence of our observation of the world)
because it uses empirical evidence from our observation of the world. Which shows that aspects of
the universe seem to have been designed because they are perfectly adapted to fulfil their function.…

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However this something does not have to be God, and how do we know that there is order in the
world? Or that if order is present that it could of occurred by chance?


The teleological argument is founded on Aquinas' fifth way. Aquinas stated

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It has regularity and order
Therefore, it must have been designed.

Design Qua Purpose:
Due to the complexities of the watch there must be a "watchmaker". The watch is like the universe
too complex to have happened by chance.

Obvious that the eye was designed for…

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The easiest and most simple explanation for the universe is that it has a cosmic designer
("Perspective of Probability")

F. R. Tennant (18661957):
Claims that:

The existence of an intelligent designer is found not just in the order of the universe, but in its
beauty nature, music, art etc.. This…

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This leads to Anthropomorphism (attributing human characteristics to concepts, or other
animals), where God's qualities and characteristics are identified with those of humans
If God is compared with a human designer then it serves only to limit his powers
If the universe is designed, then it is designed poorly (due…

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6) committee of Gods, or team of demons

7) Universe is unique, nothing to compare it to, to see if the world is ordered.

He argued that you cannot assume that B follows A. There could be order in the world but it should
not be assumed that it was…


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