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Atomic Radius
Decreases because..
· the positive charge of the nucleus increases
(one extra proton) but the amount of
shielding from the electrons doesn't (they get
added to the same energy level), therefore
the nucleus attracts the electrons more
strongly than they repel each other, drawing
them closer in.…read more

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Ionisation Energy…read more

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Ionisation Energy
Generally increases because the nuclear charge is increasing and
electrons are being added to the same energy level ­ attracted
more strongly - need more energy to remove outermost electron.
· Magnesium Aluminium ­ ionisation energy decreases
because the outermost electron for Aluminium is in the p
orbital which is lower than the outermost electron in
Magnesium which is in the s orbital ­ less energy needed to
remove it.
· Phosphorus Sulphur ­ less energy is needed to remove one
of the paired electrons from the sulphur because of the
repulsion between paired electrons which counteracts the
nuclear pull…read more

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Structure and Bonding
Sodium Aluminium:
· All have metallic bonding
· Becomes stronger from Na to Al because :
- the charge on the metal ion increases
- the size of the ion decreases so charge
density increases
- number of delocalised electrons in the charge
cloud increases
Therefore the boiling and melting points increase…read more

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