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The transfer of energy by heating processes and the factors that
affect the rate at which the energy is transferred
P1.1…read more

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P1.1.1: Infrared Radiation
All objects emit and absorb infrared
radiation.
The hotter an object is, the more infrared
radiation it radiates in a given time.
Dark, matt surfaces are good absorbers
and good emitters of infrared radiation.
Light, shiny surfaces are poor absorbers
and poor emitters of infrared radiation.
Light, shiny surfaces are good reflectors of
infrared radiation.…read more

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P1.1.2: Kinetic Theory
The use of kinetic theory explains the
different types of matter.
The particles of solids, liquids and gases
have different amounts of energy.
Additional guidance:
Candidates should be able to recognise
simple diagrams to model the difference
between solids, liquids and gases.
An understanding of specific latent heat is not
required.…read more

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P1.1.3: Energy transfer by
heating
The transfer of energy by conduction, convection,
evaporation and condensation involves particles.
There are factors which affect the rate of evaporation
and condensation.
The rate at which an object transfers energy by heating
depends on:
Surface area and volume
The material from which the object is made
The nature of the surface with which the object is in contact
The bigger the temperature difference between an object
and its surroundings, the faster the rate at which energy
is transferred by heating.…read more

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P1.1.3: Energy transfer by
heating
Additional guidance:
Candidates should understand in simple terms how the
arrangement and movement of particles determine whether a
material is a conductor or an insulator.
Candidates should understand the role of free electrons in
conduction through a metal.
Candidates should be able to use the idea of particles moving
apart to make a fluid less dense, to explain simple applications of
convection.
Candidates should be able to explain evaporation and the
cooling effect this causes using kinetic theory.
Candidates should be able to explain the design of devices in
terms of energy transfer, for example, cooling fins.
Candidates should be able to explain animal adaptations in
terms of energy transfer, for example, relative ear size of animals
in warm and cold climates.…read more

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