Physics AQA Higher Tier Full Unit Revision Notes

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  • Created on: 13-06-12 23:06
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Physics revision
Types of energy
1. Magnetic
Energy in magnets and electromagnets
2. Kinetic
The energy in moving objects.
3. Heat/Thermal
4. Light
5. Gravitational potential
Stored energy in raised objects.
6. Chemical
Stored energy in fuel, foods and batteries
7. Sound
Energy released by vibrating objects
8. Electrical
Energy in moving or static electric charges
9. Elastic potential
Stored energy in stretched or squashed objects
10. Nuclear
Stored in the nuclei of atoms
Cost of electricity and KWh
Defined as, rate at which energy is transferred
Energy transferred
Power = Time taken
P= T
T= P
Paying for electricity
Electricity is used by the `unit' or kilowatt hour
Number of units used = power x time
(KWh) = (KW) x (hours)
Electricity is paid for in kilowatt hour because if it was paid in joules, the joules would be extremely high
as 3,600,000 (J) = 1 KW so, would be hard to record the amount of electricity you used.
Now you have worked out the units, you need to work out the cost

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Cost of electricity = Cost per KWh x Total amount of used KWh
Reflection occurs when light bounces off objects. How much reflection
depends upon how even the surface is. If the surface is rough, the light
scatters. If the surface is smooth and flat, the light will bounce off it
at equal angles. That is why a flat mirror reflects a good likeness of the
object being reflected.…read more

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Convection occurs when particles with a
lot of heat energy in a liquid or gas move
and take the place of particles with
less heat energy.
As a result, the particles take up more
volume. The liquid or gas in hot areas is
less dense than the liquid or gas in cold
areas, so it rises into the cold areas.
The denser cold liquid or gas falls into
the warm areas.…read more

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Calculate energy required to heat a 500 g mass of lead from 20°C to 46°C (SHC of lead = 140J/KG/°C)?
E = MC
E = 0.5 x 140 x 26 = 1820
E = 1820J
E = 1.82 KJ
Payback Times
It is the time it takes to recoup in saving the money spent on reducing energy consumption.
Equation: Payback Time (years) = Cost of Installation (£) ÷ Savings per Year in Costs (£)
Example question:
1.…read more

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This is how a power station works
Disadvantages of using fossil fuels
Fossil fuels are non-renewable energy resources: their supply is
limited and they will eventually run out. Fossil fuels do not
renew themselves, while fuels such as wood can be renewed
Coal and oil release sulphur dioxide gas when they burn, which
causes breathing problems for living creatures and contributes to
acid rain.
Fossil fuels release carbon dioxide when they burn, which adds to
the greenhouse effect and increases global warming.…read more

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Water energy
The water in the sea rises and falls because of waves on the surface. Wave machines use the kinetic
energy in this movement to drive electricity generators.
A tidal barrage is a barrier built over a river estuary to make use of the kinetic energy in the moving
water. The barrage contains electricity generators, which are driven by the water rushing through tubes in
the barrage.
Hydroelectric power
Hydroelectric power (HEP) stations use the kinetic energy in moving water.…read more

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Solar cells are devices that convert light energy directly into
electrical energy.
Solar energy is a renewable energy resource and there are
no fuel costs. No harmful polluting gases are produced. Solar cells
provide electricity in remote locations, such as roadside signs.
Solar cells are expensive and inefficient, so the cost of
their electricity is high. Solar cells do not work at night.…read more


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