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Heat =
absolute scale (not lower than zero (limit how slow particles can move))
Joule (J)
Temperature =
Not absolute (can go below zero)
Energy hot cool objects
Difference in temperature, energy will flow
Greater dif ^ faster rate of cooling
Specific Heat Capacity
How much energy stuff…

Page 2

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^ air can't move ­ has to conduct v.slowly through the pockets of air + material in between
Heat Radiation
Heat is radiated as infrared waves
Radiation is dif to conduction and convection:
Doesn't need a medium to travel through (can occur in a vacuum i.e. space)
Can only occur…

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Sankey Diagrams
Thickness of arrow represents the amount of energy
^ thicker the arrow = more energy
Wave Basics
Frequency = no. Of complete cycles or
oscillations passing a certain point per
second ­ hertz (Hz) ­ 1Hz = 1 wave per
Wave speed = Frequency x wavelength

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Wave goes through dif density = change speed
Hit at angle = change direction
Electromagnetic Waves
Shorter wavelength = higher frequency
Increasing frequency and decreasing wavelength
^ = Gamma Rays
Radio waves, Micro waves, Infra red....
EM waves at each end tend to be able to pass through material…

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^ act as digital codes
Disadvantages: need to be close ­ IR beam from small, low-powered remote = fairly
weak, direct line of sight ­ IR waves only travel in a straight line
Wireless Communication ­ Radio Waves
Good at long distances
^ don't get absorbed by atmosphere as much…

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^e.g. phones
Ultraviolet Radiation
UV ­ damages DNA in cells = cancer
^premature skin aging
Darker skin = absorbs more UV radiation ­ prevents some of the damaging radiation from
reaching the more vulnerable tissues deeper in the body
Sun Protection Factor = SPF
^ SPF 15 = can…


Roshany Shahzad

Thank you so much

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