Orlando, Nitti, Giolitti, Salandra, Facta

The main PMs of Italy over the period 1919-21 (ish) basic knowledge for Edexcel AS History Modern, Italy and Fascism 1919-25

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Orlando, Nitti, Giolitti, Salandra, Facta
During 191922, there was a high turnover of governance (6 in 3.5 years). In general terms,
this was due to faction/division within the liberal party (e.g Salandra v Giolitti)
Electoral weakness, necessitating coalitions
Public perception that liberals were weak and ineffective\
1. Orlando (resigns in July 1919)Forced to resign after the publication of the
Treaty of St Germain="mutilated victory"
2. Nitti (resigns in June 1920)resigns over failure to deal with the Bienno Rosso
of the Fiume situation
3. Giolitti (resigns June 1921) ­attempts to improve the liberal's position by
holding fresh elections in alliance with the Fascists (PNF) which were held in May
1921. The liberal vote collapses from 91 to 47 seats and the PNF breaks its alliance
with him.
4. Bonomi (resigns Feb 1922) resigns because of PPI opposition (over
increased church taxes) and also because of his failure to deal with the increasing
fascist violence
5. (and 6) Facta has 2 different governments during this periodfinally resigning
as a result of the legalitarian strike and the threatened March on Rome (resigns in
Oct 1922) by Fascist squads
Why do the liberals stay in government if they're only the 3rd biggest
group?
Tradition the King appoints the political party and so the liberals have power.
1

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