ORGANIC CHEMISTRY NOTES

Notes for GCE 'O' Level Pure Chemistry Organic Chemistry.

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  • Created on: 11-11-11 16:25
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PROPERTIES ALKANES ALKENES ALCOHOLS CARBOXYLIC ACIDS
General
Molecular
CH n 2n+2 CnH2n CnH2n+1OH CH COOH
n 2n+1
Formula Saturated hydrocarbons with C-C A class of organic acids.
bonds and C-H bonds [Single covalent Homologous series. -COOH
bonds] functional group.
Properties High melting and boiling point High melting and boiling Soluble in water Carboxylic acids that have
Density as relative molecular point Solubility decreases as molecular size more carbon atoms have
mass Density increases as R.M.M increases. higher boiling points.
Soluble in water Neutral (pH 7)
Flammable More reactive the alkanes as C-O and
Viscosity as mol. Size O-H bonds in alcohols are more reactive
As mol. Size , % of carbon , than C-C and C-H bonds in alkanes.
hence flammability . Smokier
flame is also produced due to
incomplete combustion
Generally unreactive as bonds are
difficult and strong to break.
Reactions Combustion Combustion Combustion
ALKANE + 2O2 CO2 + H2O ALKENE + O2 CO2 + H2O ALCOHOL+ O2 CO2 + H2O
i.e.: i.e.:
i.e.:
C2H4 + 3O2 2CO2 + H2O C2H5OH + 3O2 2CO2 + 3H2O
2C2H6 + 7O2 4CO2 + 6H2O (complete)
(complete combustion) Oxidation
C2H6 + 2O2 CO + 3H2O + (C) C2H4 + O2 2CO + 2H2O ALCOHOL + O2 from oxidising agent
(incomplete) CARBOXYLIC ACID + H2O
(incomplete combustion)
Hydrogenation

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High temperature and
pressure
Substitution Ethene + H2 Ethane
Unsaturated saturated i.e.:
(manufacturing of margarine) Ethanol + O2 from oxidising agent
CH4 + Cl2 CH3Cl + HCl ethanoic acid + H2O
Hydration
I. In this redox rxn, ethanol acts as a
300C reducing agent while acidified
65 atm potassium dichromate (VI) acts as
Phosphorous acid (H3PO4) an oxidising agent.
[catalyst]
II. Potassium dichromate (VI) is
reduced. Its colour changes from
i.e.:
orange to green.
Ethane + H2O Ethanol
(In the presence of UV light) III.…read more

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Fermentation is a chemical process in which
micro-organisms such as yeast act on carbs.
to produce ethanol and CO2
Starch Glucose Ethanol + CO2
Fermentation can only take place in the
absence of O2. If an alcoholic drink such as
PREPARATION OF ALKENES: wine is left exposed to the air, it will turn
sour after a few days. Bacteria from the air
Cracking oxidise the drink into carboxylic acids.
Big alkane molecules Smaller E.g.…read more

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Alcoholic drinks
[Oxidation] {test}
Breathalysers test the amount of
alcohol consumed by drivers.
Contains potassium dichromate
(VI). A colour change indicates
presence of alcohol.…read more

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