Organelles and the Cytoskeleton

 

Organelles are Involved in Protein Production

 

and the function of the Cytoskeleton

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  • Created on: 07-01-11 13:54
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Organelles
04 January 2011
22:00
Organelles are Involved in Protein Production
Proteins made at ribosomes
Ribosomes on rER make proteins make proteins that are excreted/attached to cell membrane
Free ribosomes in cytoplasm make proteins that stay in cytoplasm
Proteins produced at rER folded and processed in rER (sugar chains added)
Then transported form ER to GA in vesicles
At GA, proteins may undergo further processing (sugar chains trimmed/ more added)
Proteins enter more vesicles to be transported around cell. e.g. extracellular enzymes (like
digestive enzymes) move to cell surface and secreted
The Cytoskeleton had Several Functions
Cytoplasm has network of protein threads running through it
Proteins called cytoskeleton
In eukaryotic cells - protein threads arranged as microfilaments (small solid strands) and
microtubules (tiny protein cylinders)
Cytoskeleton has 4 main functions:
Microtubules and microfilaments support cells organelles
Keeping them in position
Help strengthen cell and maintain shape
Responsible for transport of materials within cell - movement of chromosomes when separate
during cell division depends on contraction of microtubules in spindle
Proteins of cytoskeleton cause cell to move
For example, movement of cilia and flagella caused by cytoskeletal protein filaments that run
through them
So in case single cells have flagellum cytoskeleton propels whole cell

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