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Slide 2

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Flat bones-
Scapula, pelvis and ribs.
Protective bones- Patella= flat bone protecting knee.
Irregular bones-
Vertebrae, short bones in hands and feet.
Protective bones.
Long bones-
arms- humerus, radius &ulna / legs- femur, tibia & fibula / hands- phalanges &
metacarpals / feet- phalanges & metatarsals
levers- lots of movement happens.…read more

Slide 3

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Most moving joints are
synovial joints.
collective term referring to:
> Cartilage
> Ligaments
> Tendons
Synovial Joint: e.g. the hip
enclosed inside a capsule filled with fluid.
synovial fluid= lubricant= reduced wear and friction at a joint
3 types: > yellow/elastic cartilage. > white fibro-cartilage >
hyaline/blue/articular cartilage.
Strong, slightly elastic fibres. Bind bone to joint for maximum
stability. Connect Bone-Bone
Non-elastic fibres. Help stabilise joints. Attach Muscle-Bone…read more

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Flexion- bending at a joint- e.g. the knee when the foot is drawn back to
kick a ball
Extension- straightening at a joint- e.g. when putting a shot the elbow is
straightened during the release.
Rotation- e.g. moving the head from side to side.
Abduction- movement away form centre line of body.
Adduction- movement towards the centre line of body.…read more

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Ball and socket: Shoulder
permit greatest range of movement. the 'ball' and the
'socket' are held together by ligaments and tendons.
Hinge: Elbow
Allow extensive range of movement but in one plane only.
Susceptible to injury from twists and turns.
Gliding: between bones of foot
limited flexion/extension. Move or glide against each other.
Pivot: between the axis and atlas bone at top of spine
(head/neck joint)
Allow good range of rotation, depression and elevation.…read more

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Joints should not be stretched beyond a degree of discomfort.
Joints should be loaded gradually beyond the working limits for which they are
prepared. <<<< particularly in young performers.
Synovial joints < where considerable movement occurs & where loads tend to be
Synovial fluid helps reduce wear and friction on the joints.
ligaments and tendons can be damaged as a result of sudden twists and turns
Remember that the joints are the key to all movement. They should not be
subjected to repeated, sudden and jarring shocks, nor stretched or contorted
into positions for which they have nit been prepared. Although the skeleton
is the framework for free movement and protection, free movement cannot
be obtained without healthy joints, ligaments or tendons.…read more


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